AACR (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition) is a major international standard for the cataloguing of all types of materials collected by general libraries. It is the cataloguing standard used by the British Library and also throughout the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA. It has also been adopted in full or in part by 56 other countries around the world.
Cataloguing rules are not static; they must respond to changing needs. A number of continuing issues affecting implementation of AACR have been compounded in recent years by the fast-moving pace of technological development and its impact on publishing patterns. AACR is developed and maintained by the Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR (JSC) of which the British Library is a full and active member. JSC has responsibility for the ongoing process of rule revision. Full details on AACR and the work of JSC can be found on the JSC Web site.
In each of the four participating countries the JSC's work is supported and stimulated by a national committee which initiates or reviews the rule revision proposals. UK views and requests for revision are made through CILIP: the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals/British Library Committee on AACR (CILIP/BL). CILIP/BL meets twice or three times per year, on a timescale co-ordinated with the work of JSC. Members of CILIP/BL include the British Library and CILIP representatives to the six-member JSC. Further information regarding the work of CILIP/BL can be obtained from the Secretary:
Katharine Gryspeerdt - email@example.com, tel: + 44 (0) 20 7412 7086.
The rules for description in Part I of AACR are based on the general framework for the description of library materials, the ISBD(G) - General International Standard Bibliographic Description. Close correspondence also exists between the chapters in AACR which relate to different types of material and the corresponding ISBD.
Resource Description and Access (RDA) was published in 2010. RDA has been developed to replace the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Edition Revised, which were first published in 1978.
RDA builds on AACR2 foundations, but RDA is a new standard for resource description and access, designed for the digital world. RDA has been designed to be compatible with legacy AACR2 records.
The British Library has contributed to the development of RDA through participation on the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA. In 2007, the British Library also hosted a Data Model meeting which examined the fit between RDA and models used in other metadata communities, including the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.
RDA and AACR2: a hybrid transitional environment
The US RDA Test resulted in the creation and distribution of several thousand RDA bibliographic and authority records. Following that test, some institutions have continued to use RDA and to distribute RDA records. Library of Congress has also announced that it will reinstate its RDA cataloguing team and distribution of RDA records will recommence with effect from November 2011.
RDA records can be identified in MARC 21 by the presence of value i in the Descriptive cataloging form (LDR/18) AND value rda in Description conventions (040 $e). AACR2 records are identified by value a in the Descriptive cataloging form (LDR/18).
The British Library chose not to redistribute RDA records created during the US RDA Test. That position is not sustainable. The British Library therefore plans to permit distribution of RDA records from 1st June 2012.
RDA and MARC 21
Changes made to the MARC 21 format to accommodate RDA elements are documented on the MARC 21 website: http://www.loc.gov/marc/RDAinMARC29-9-12-11.html
The British Library configures its systems to accommodate new or amended MARC fields. This will be a continuing process, as MARC 21 continues to develop to support RDA.
The British Library will also contribute to the Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative to explore options for the transition from current technologies for encoding, storage and transmission of bibliographic data.
The British Library:
- will implement RDA no earlier than 1st January 2013;
- is committed to coordinating implementation of RDA with international partners, including Library and Archives Canada, Library of Congress and National Library of Australia;
- is committed to supporting a coordinated implementation within the UK;
In the lead-up to 2013 activity will be directed towards two priorities:
- Responding to the hybrid environment which RDA has already created
- Preparing for implementation in 2013
This will include the following tasks:
- Communication and consultation with stakeholders
- Reconfiguration of our production systems for RDA
- Redistribution of RDA records
- Procurement of commercial sources of RDA data
- Documentation of policy and workflows
- Preparation and delivery of training
Reconfiguration of British Library production systems to support RDA will be implemented during February 2012. The BL will begin to distribute RDA bibliographic records from 1 June 2012.
The family of International Standard Bibliographic Descriptions specifies the requirements for description and identification of information resources. Responsibility for the development and maintenance of ISBD resides with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions - Section on Cataloguing, in which the British Library plays an active role.
When creating this specification, decisions on the proposed structure have been influenced both by the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PPC) and the CONSER core records. The purpose of the standard record is to specify the content of records and set data standards which will provide quality access to the Library's Catalogue. The specification is intended to cover monographs, serials, maps and music.
The vision of the record structure was presented as one with three layers of data:
- first layer - the core comprising the standardised description and the central authority data;
- second layer - the special bibliographic data which will only be created when required;
- third layer - the data needed for stock management.
This specification concerns the first layer. The core data specified here contains a level of detail in the description that closely corresponds to the full second level as defined in AACR Chapter 1.0D. Material specific details will be included as part of the core data for specific materials such as music, maps and serial publications. The one omission is general material designations which are an optional addition in AACR, and one that the British Library has chosen not to adopt. However, this is an area worthy of closer consideration, bearing in mind the growing number of non-book materials in the Library's catalogues and the increase in record exchange and international cooperation. The levels of description for both the PCC and CONSER core records are close to, and in some areas extend further than, the second level of description. Both records include some notes fields, and this is an area of the record that forms part of both the first and second level descriptions. However AACR paragraph 0.27 makes it clear that the inclusion of notes is optional. The first statement of responsibility relating to the edition is the only one that is required for the second level of description, whereas the PCC core record recommends 'using all data elements appropriate to the item described', i.e. transcribing all statements of responsibility relating to the edition area. It should be noted that the levels of detail in the description defined in 1.0D refer only to elements of the bibliographic description of the item. This core data specification will also include access points and machine readable control fields as do the PCC and CONSER versions.
Description of the item
This specification is presented as far as possible in an order corresponding to that of AACR. A table listing the UKMARC fields to which this information relates is attached below; this is for information only, as existing fields may be changed or new fields added.
|Levels of Description in BL Standard Record||Levels of Description in PCC
and CONSER Core Records
|TITLE & STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY AREA
- include all data elements
|PCC and CONSER core records include all data elements.|
- include all data elements
|PCC and CONSER core records will include all data elements; all data elements will be included to correspond with these proposed record structures.|
|MATERIAL SPECIFIC DETAILS AREA
- include all data elements
|PUBLICATION, DISTRIBUTION, ETC. AREA
- include all data elements except the full address of the publisher (AACR 1.4C7)
|PCC and CONSER core records will include all data elements; the full address of the publisher will be excluded from the core data within the BL catalogue record on the basis that it is not essential for retrieval purposes. It could form part of the second layer.|
|PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AREA
- include all data elements
|PCC and CONSER core records will include all data elements. All data elements will be included to correspond with these proposed record structures.|
- include all data elements
- coding changes June 2006 -
|PCC and CONSER core records will include all series statements. CONSER recommends series added entries as mandatory whereas the PCC recommendation for books states it is 'optional to make added entry for series. If a series is traced, it must be in an authoritative form supported by a national-level authority record'. All series statements will be included as part of the core descriptive data, and series authority records where necessary. (See also Access points, Series).|
- include all data elements
|Where required notes always be included on:
- source of title, variations in title and parallel title and other title information (AACR 1.7B3-5/UKMARC field 514)
- contents of multi-part items with separate titles (AACR 1.7B18/UKMARC field 505)
- details relating to original (graphic materials and microforms) (AACR 8.7B22, 11.7B22/UKMARC field 536)
- edition and history (AACR 1.7B7/UKMARC field 503)
- item described (AACR 12.7B1/UKMARC field 556)
- accompanying material and supplements (AACR 1.7B11/UKMARC field 525).
All AACR justified note fields will form part of the core data. However this decision takes into consideration that the inclusion of notes is optional (AACR paragraph 0.27), and that the cataloguer's decision will be dependent on the nature of the item described.
|STANDARD NUMBER & TERMS OF AVAILABILITY AREA
- include standard number(s) together with their status and the appropriate qualification;
- include also key-title when ISSN is present in the standard number area. (AACR 1.8B, 1.8E/UKMARC fields 021, subfields $a, $b, $c, $z & 022, 222);
- do not include terms of availability, i.e. price or a brief statement of other terms if not for sale.
|Terms of availability do not form part of either the PCC or CONSER core records. It is not essential information for retrieval and should be included as part of the second layer of data.|
Access points for personal names, corporate bodies, conferences and meetings, series titles, uniform titles and subject are derived from the linked authority file. Access points (with the exception of title) do not form an organic part of the core bibliographic data, but are required for retrieval, display and printing. Each bibliographic description contains pointers to one or more authority records.
|Access Points||BL Standard Record|
|Personal Names||Include personal name main and added entry headings as required
(AACR 21.1A & 21.29-30/UKMARC fields 100, 700).
|Corporate Bodies||Include corporate body main and added entry headings as required
(AACR 21.1B & 21.29-30/UKMARC fields 110, 111, 710, 711).
|Title||Include title main and added entry headings as required
(AACR 21.1C & 21.29-30/UKMARC fields 245, 745).
|Series||Include series added entry headings for title, uniform title, personal names, corporate bodies, conferences, etc., as required
(AACR 21.29-30/UKMARC fields 800, 810, 811, 840).
|Uniform Titles||Include main and added entry headings as required
(AACR Ch. 25/UKMARC fields 240.3, 240.4, 740).
|Subject Added Entries||Include subject added entry headings for uniform title, title, personal names, corporate bodies, conferences, etc., topical and geographical LC terms as required
(UKMARC fields 600, 610, 611, 640, 650, 651 & 655).
|Dewey Decimal Classification Number||Include a Dewey Decimal Classification number
(UKMARC field 082).
All these data fields will be included to correspond to the core summaries for both PCC and CONSER.
Include record control number (UKMARC field 001) and information codes (UKMARC field 008).
These data fields will be included to correspond to the core summaries for both PCC and CONSER.
Include International Standard Book Number (ISBN) (UKMARC field 021), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) (UKMARC field 022), Cataloguing source (UKMARC field 040), Languages (UKMARC field 041). These data fields will be included to correspond to the core summaries for both PCC and CONSER.
Summary of Core Data within the BL Record
|001 Record control number|
|008 * Information codes - Include as for records with full descriptive cataloguing|
|040 Cataloguing source|
|100 § Personal name main entry heading|
|110 § Corporate name main entry heading|
|111 § Conference, congress, meeting, etc. name main entry heading|
|240 Uniform titles - excluding collective titles|
|243 † Collective titles|
|245 Title and statement of responsibility area|
|248 Second level and subsequent level title and statement of responsibility relating to a multipart item|
|250 Edition area|
|260 Publication, distribution, etc. area|
|300 Physical description area|
|440 § Series area - title of series in added entry heading form|
|490 Series area - title of series not in added entry form|
|5xx All AACR justified fields in the note area. The following 5xx fields are recommended essential inclusions:|
|503 Edition and history note (monographs), relationships with other serials note|
|505 Contents note. Use only for multi-part items with separate titles|
|514 Title proper, parallel title and other title note|
525 Accompanying materials and supplements note
|536 Notes relating to original (graphic materials and microforms)|
|600 § Personal name subject heading|
|610 § Corporate name subject heading|
|611 § Conference, congress, meeting etc. subject heading|
|640 § Uniform title subject heading|
|650 § Topical Library of Congress subject heading|
|651 § Geographical Library of Congress subject heading|
|655 § Genre / form heading|
|700 § Personal name added entry heading|
|710 § Corporate name added entry heading|
|711 § Conference, congress, meeting, etc. name added entry heading|
|740 § Uniform title added entry heading|
|745 Title added entry heading - excluding uniform titles|
|800 § Personal author series added entry heading|
|810 § Corporate series added entry heading|
|811 § Conference, congress, meeting, etc. series added entry heading|
|840 § Series title added entry heading|
|Specific material core fields - Monographs|
|021 International Standard Book Number (ISBN)|
|Specific material core fields - Serials|
|022 International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)|
|255 Numeric and/or alphabetic, chronological or other designation area|
|556 Item described note ( recommended essential inclusion).|
|Specific material core fields - Maps|
|256 Mathematical data area (cartographic materials)|
|Specific material core fields - Music|
|254 Musical presentation area|
|Specific material core fields - Antiquarian material|
|299 Title and statement of responsibility (antiquarian)|
§ Controlled authority data
* Further evaluation of this field needs to undertaken in the light of MARC convergence
† Policy on collective titles needs to be re-examined in detail in the light of possible future developments in the Program for Co-operative Cataloguing
The British Library has implemented Dewey 22 in phases as part of an extensive programme of changes to the Library's record creation procedures.
The BL applied Dewey 22 class numbers in some of its original cataloguing for the British National Bibliography (BNB) from July 1st onwards. However, most original records continued to carry Dewey 21 class numbers until January 2004 when the BL began to apply Dewey 22 to all records created for the BNB.
The BL derives some of its cataloguing data from the Library of Congress, which began to apply Dewey 22 from July 1st 2003 so that BNB records derived from LC data during this period contained Dewey 22 class numbers.
Bibliographic Data Services Limited (BDS) began to apply Dewey 22 class numbers in Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) records from October 1st . Because they are created three months or more in advance of publication, most CIP records for items with a scheduled publication date of January 2004 or later included Dewey 22 class numbers. Some CIP records for items scheduled for publication in 2004 had Dewey 21 class numbers because they were created before October 1st.
Further information is available at Dewey 22: the principal changes.
Series Statements in British Library Bibliographic Data
Between June 2004 and May 2006, the British Library provided controlled access to series titles where a NACO series heading was available. A large proportion of these headings were created by the Library of Congress (48% of all new series authorities in 2004-2005). From 1st June 2006 the Library of Congress ceased to create or maintain series authority records. As a result, the British Library ceased to provide NACO series headings in its bibliographic data from June 2006. Retrieval of series data is now through keyword access only.
Due to the current stage of developments in our bibliographic systems and pre-existing arrangements for the exchange and supply of bibliographic data, the British Library has adopted an interim policy of recording transcribed series title data in the 440 field rather than the 490 0 field, with the exception of “generic” series.
Although an interim policy of using only the 440 field allows continuity of access in most cases, it has the disadvantage of excluding some series descriptive data (e.g. statements of responsibility, parallel titles). The need to record series data in the 440 field rather than the 490 field will be reviewed in 2008 when a planned system upgrade presents an opportunity to provide improved access to 490 series data.
MARC coding of series information (June 2006-)
In records created at the British Library (040 $aUk), series titles are transcribed from the item in a 440 field with the exception of “generic series”, i.e. titles that are common to multiple series of documents (Working Papers, Research Reports, etc.). Generic series are transcribed in a 490 field, first indicator 1, and an access point constructed by qualifying the title with the authorised name of the issuing body in parentheses:
490 1 $aWorking papers
830 0 $aWorking papers (Centre for Comparative Labour Studies (Warwick,
Other than generic series, no attempt is made to control variations of series title appearing on a single volume or on different volumes within a series.
Records derived from the Library of Congress
Library of Congress series data is converted from 490 to 440. All records distributed by the BL with 040$aDLC contain series data in the 440 field.
Records derived from other sources
Records distributed with an 040$a other than Uk or DLC may contain series data in any of the MARC series fields (440, 490, 800, 810, 830).
lis-ukbibs is an email discussion list for bibliographic standards in the United Kingdom.
It is used by the CILIP-BL Committee on AACR to disseminate information and seek feedback from the professional cataloguing community in the United Kingdom.
The list is open to anyone.
To become a member of lis-ukbibs, send an email with the following details:
- To: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Subject: (leave blank)
- Message: Subscribe lis-ukbibs YourFirstName YourLastName (and nothing else)
You can also join the list, as well as view emails sent to the list in the past, at the archives of lis-ukbibs.
|Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR (JSC)|
|Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR)|
|Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP)
|Cataloguing and Indexing Group|
For further information please contact:
The British Library
Boston Spa, Wetherby