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 Detail from the Roman de la Rose
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Oriental 2737 f. 72v The fourth plague
The fourth plague
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Description: Full-page miniature of the plague of arov, in an architectural frame.
The meaning of the Hebrew word, arov, by which the fourth plague is described (E. 8:21) is not clear. In Christian iconography following the translation of the Vulgate, which translates arov as omne genus muscarum, that is, 'all kinds of flies', the fourth plague is depicted as flies. Jewish iconography follows the rabbinical explanation of arov depicting it as various kinds of wild animals (see e.g. the Rashi's commentary on Ex. 8:21). 
Origin: Spain, Central (Castile) 


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