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Detailed record for Royal 1 D X

Title Psalter
Origin England, Central (Oxford)
Date 1st quarter of the 13th century, before 1220
Language Latin
Script Gothic, written above top line
Decoration 16 full-page prefatory miniatures in colours and gold, with scenes from the life of Christ (ff. 1-8v). 24 miniatures in medallions of the Labours of the Months and the Signs of the Zodiac, in colours and gold, in the calendar (ff. 9-14v). 1 large inhabited initial on diapered ground with display script and medallions with scenes from the life of David, in colours and gold, at the beginning of the Psalter (f. 16), and 9 historiated initials in colours and gold, with display script and diapered grounds (f. 32, 42v, 52, 52v, 62, 74v, 86, 87v, 98), at the beginning of other major divisions. 2 smaller historiated initials (ff. 21v, 76v) and numerous initials with foliate, inhabited, or animal decoration, in colours and gold, at the beginning of other Psalms and in the calendar. Small initials in gold on rose and blue grounds with penwork decoration in white and red, at the beginning of each verse, and initials in gold, blue, brown, silver, red, and green in the calendar with major feasts in gold display script. Line-fillers in red and blue, some with animals, fish, or human heads.
Dimensions in mm 350 x 240 (245 x 150), in one column
Official foliation ff. 139 (+ 4 unfoliated modern paper flyleaves at the beginning and at the end; blank folio after f. 8)
Form Parchment codex
Binding BM/BL in-house, over modern boards.
Provenance Probably made for use in Oxford: the calendar and litany include three entries for Frideswide, the patron saint of Oxford (f. 9v, 13v, 138); and probably produced there: its style connected with the Imola (Imola Biblioteca Comunale, ms. 100) and Munich (Clm. 835) Psalters (see Morgan 1982, I, p. 76); written probably before 1220: the calendar does not include the Translation of Thomas of Canterbury, established in 1220.
Inscribed 'Deus misereatur nostri et benedicat nobis E. H', 16th century (f. 15v).
Presented to the British Museum by George II in 1757 as part of the Old Royal Library.
Notes Includes a calendar (ff. 9-14v) and litany (ff. 137-139). The calendar includes the erased name of Thomas of Canterbury in gold display script and a number of English saints: Judoc, Edburga, Oswald, Cuthbert, Guthlac, Dunstan, Andelm, Alban, Etheldreda, Swithun, Grimbald, Kenelm, Frideswide, Edmund, Birinus, etc. The translation of Thomas of Canterbury is not included. The Litany includes: (martyrs) Edmund, Alban, Oswald and Kenelm, (confessors) Swithun, Aldhelm, Dunstan, and Guthlac, (virgins) Frideswide.
Quire signatures.
Sewing holes above prefatory miniatures clearly for 'curtains', now no longer extant.
Select bibliography Walter de Gray Birch and Henry Jenner, Early Drawings and Illuminations: An Introduction to the Study of Illustrated Manuscripts (London: Bagster and Sons, 1879), p. 6.

Arthur Haseloff, 'La miniature dans les pays cisalpins depuis le commencement du XIIe jusqu'au milieu du XIV siècle', in Histoire de l'Art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu'à nos jours, ed. by André Michel (Paris: 1905-06), II, pp. 297-371 (p. 320).

J. A. Herbert, Illuminated Manuscripts (London: Methuen, 1911), p. 176, pl. 21.

J. A. Herbert, 'A Psalter in the British Museum (Royal MS I. D. X)', Walpole Society, 3 (1913-1914), 47-56, pls. xli-l.

George F. Warner and Julius P. Gilson, Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Old Royal and King’s Collections, 4 vols (London: British Museum, 1921), I, p. 18.

Reproductions from Illuminated Manuscripts, Series 3, 3rd edn (London: British Museum, 1925), pl. 14.

Eric. G. Millar, English Illuminated Manuscripts from the Xth to the XIIIth Century (Paris: Van Oest, 1926), I, p. 45, pls. 64, 65.

Guide to an Exhibition of English Art gathered from Various Departments and held in the Prints and Drawings Gallery (London: British Museum, 1934.), no. 106.

T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1100-1216, Oxford History of English Art, 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957), p. 280, pls. 91b, c.

Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: the Middle Ages, 2nd edn (London: Penguin Books, 1965), pp. 98-99, pl. 99B.

Florens Deuchler, Der Ingeborgpsalter (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1967), pp. 8 n. 22, 37, 39, 164 n. 284.

Meyer Schapiro, 'An Illuminated English Psalter of the Early Thirteenth Century', in Late Antique, Early Christian and Mediaeval Art: Selected Papers (New York: George Braziller, 1979, first publ. 1960), 329-54 (p. 351).

The Year 1200: A Centennial Exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, February 12 through May 10, 1970, ed. by Konrad Hoffmann (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970), no. 261 [exhibition catalogue].

Henry B. Graham, ‘The Munich Psalter’, in The Year 1200: A Symposium (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975), pp. 301-12 (p. 302).

Andrew G. Watson, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c.700-1600 in the Department of Manuscripts, The British Library, 2 vols (London: British Library, 1979), I, no. 857.

Nigel J. Morgan, 'Notes on the Post-Conquest Calendar, Litany and Martyrology of the Cathedral Priory of Winchester with a Consideration of Winchester Diocese Calendars of the Pre-Sarum Period', in The Vanishing Past: Medieval Studies Presented to Christopher Hohler, ed. by A. Borg and A. Martindale (Oxford: BAR, 1981), pp. 157, 167 nn. 65, 67, 74.

Nigel J. Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts (I) 1190-1250 (Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles), (Harvey Miller: London, 1982), no. 28, p. 73.

Claire Donovan, The de Brailes Hours: Shaping the Book of Hours in Thirteenth-Century Oxford (London, British Library, 1991), p. 201, no. 3.

Janet Backhouse, 'Sir Robert Cotton's Record of a Royal Bookshelf', British Library Journal, 18 (1992) 44-51 (p. 46, n. 8).

The Libraries of King Henry VIII, ed. by J. P. Carley, Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues, 7 (London: The British Library. 2000), p. xxxvi, n. 48.

Nigel Morgan, ‘The Decorative Ornament of the Text and Page in Thirteenth Century England: Initials, Border Extensions, and Line Fillers’, in Decoration and Illustration in Medieval English Manuscripts, ed. by A. S. G. Edwards, English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, 10 (London: British Library, 2002), pp. 1-33 (p. 13, pl. 11).

C. M. Kauffmann, Biblical Imagery in Medieval England 700-1500 (London: Harvey Miller, 2003), p. 167.

Scot McKendrick, John Lowden, and Kathleen Doyle, Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination (London: British Library, 2011), no. 83 [exhibition catalogue].


Images
* * *
 
Annunciation and Visitation

f. 1
Annunciation and Visitation
Nativity and Annunciation to the Shepherds

f. 1v
Nativity and Annunciation to the Shepherds
Nativity

f. 1v
Nativity
 
Annunciation to the Shepherds

f. 1v
Annunciation to the Shepherds
The Magi

f. 2
The Magi
The Magi

f. 2
The Magi
 
The Magi

f. 2
The Magi
Dream of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple

f. 2v
Dream of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple
Dream of the Magi

f. 2v
Dream of the Magi
 
Presentation in the Temple

f. 2v
Presentation in the Temple
Flight into Egypt and the Massacre of the Innocents

f. 3
Flight into Egypt and the Massacre of the Innocents
Baptism of Christ and Marriage at Cana

f. 3v
Baptism of Christ and Marriage at Cana
 
The Transfiguration of Christ and the Raising of Lazarus

f. 4
The Transfiguration of Christ and the Raising of Lazarus
Mary Magdalene anointing Christ's feet and the Entry into Jerusalem

f. 4v
Mary Magdalene anointing Christ's feet and the Entry into Jerusalem
Last Supper and Christ washing Peter's feet

f. 5
Last Supper and Christ washing Peter's feet
 
Last Supper and Christ washing Peter's feet

f. 5
Last Supper and Christ washing Peter's feet
Betrayal of Christ and Peter's denial

f. 5v
Betrayal of Christ and Peter's denial
Scourging of Christ and Hanging of Judas

f. 6
Scourging of Christ and Hanging of Judas
 
Crucifixion

f. 6v
Crucifixion
Women at the Tomb and Descent to Hell

f. 7
Women at the Tomb and Descent to Hell
Holy Women at the Tomb

f. 7
Holy Women at the Tomb
 
Descent into Hell

f. 7
Descent into Hell
Supper at Emmaus and the Doubting of Thomas

f. 7v
Supper at Emmaus and the Doubting of Thomas
Ascension and Pentecost

f. 8
Ascension and Pentecost
 
Christ in Majesty

f. 8v
Christ in Majesty
January

f. 9
January
February

f. 9v
February
 
March

f. 10
March
April

f. 10v
April
May

f. 11
May
 
June

f. 11v
June
July

f. 12
July
August

f. 12v
August
 
September

f. 13
September
Calendar pages: October and November

f. 13v-14
Calendar pages: October and November
October

f. 13v
October
 
November

f. 14
November
December

f. 14v
December
Inhabited initial

f. 16
Inhabited initial
 
Inhabited initial

f. 16
Inhabited initial
Text page

f. 21
Text page
Bishop

ff. 21v-22
Bishop
 
Bishop

f. 21v
Bishop
Bishop

f. 21v
Bishop
Anointing of David

f. 32
Anointing of David
 
Samuel anointing David

f. 32
Samuel anointing David
Judgment of Solomon

f. 42v
Judgment of Solomon
Inhabited initial

f. 45v
Inhabited initial
 
Decorated initials

f. 48v
Decorated initials
David and Goliath

f. 52
David and Goliath
Third Temptation of Christ

f. 52v
Third Temptation of Christ
 
Third Temptation of Christ

f. 52v
Third Temptation of Christ
Christ and David

f. 62
Christ and David
Christ and David

f. 62
Christ and David
 
Decorated initial

f. 68v
Decorated initial
Jacob wrestling with the angel

f. 74v
Jacob wrestling with the angel
Jacob wrestling with the angel

f. 74v
Jacob wrestling with the angel
 
Fish

f. 77v
Fish
Virgin and Child

f. 86
Virgin and Child
Virgin and Child

f. 86
Virgin and Child
 
Christ and Ecclesia

f. 87v
Christ and Ecclesia
Christ and Ecclesia

f. 87v
Christ and Ecclesia
God the Father and God the Son

f. 98
God the Father and God the Son
 
God the Father and God the Son

f. 98
God the Father and God the Son
Illuminated initial

f. 116v
Illuminated initial
Decorated initials

ff. 118v-119
Decorated initials
 
Decorated initial

f. 120v
Decorated initial
Decorated initials

f. 139
Decorated initials

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