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Detailed record for Additional 40618

ff. 1-65 
Title Gospel Book, imperfect (Vulgate version, Irish textual family)
 
ff. 22, 49, 66 
Title Illumination added to a Gospel book
 
Origin Ireland (S.E.?)
Date 2nd half of the 8th century or 1st half of the 9th century
Language Latin
Script Insular pointed minuscule (Irish minuscule)
Decoration Evangelist portrait of Luke, in colours as an author, standing and holding a book (f. 21v), related stylistically to the Book of Mulling (Trinity College Dublin MS 60). Traces of initials with original interlace, erased and overpainted.
Dimensions in mm 130 x 105 (100 x 75)
Official foliation ff. 66 (+ 3 unfoliated paper flyleaves at the beginning and 3 at the end)
Form Parchment codex
Binding Post-1600. One old oak board is kept separately as Additional MS 40618A (mislaid), and a later parchment cover is kept as Add.40618B.
Provenance ?St Augustine's Canterbury (see Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (1976), p. 43) or Winchester (see Wormald, 'Winchester School' (1971), pp. 309-10) in the mid-10th century (N.B. the manuscript is not included under either Canterbury and Winchester in N.R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain, 2nd edn (1964) or Andrew G. Watson, Supplement (1987)). The initials (ff. 23r and 50r) were repainted and Evangelist portraits (ff. 22v and 49v) added or 'modernised' and supplemented at this time in southern England. A replacement final leaf of text (f. 66r) was probably added at the same time in Anglo-Saxon minuscule with Caroline features, with the scribal colophon in rustic capitals 'Qui legat orat pro scriptore Eaduuardo diacone'. There are stylistic and technical links with other material supplemented for Athelstan, such as the Athelstan Psalter (Cotton MS Galba A.XVIII) and the zoomorphic decoration is Anglo-Saxon.
?Partially erased 13th or 14th-century inscription 'Iste est liber...me liquis mun...' (f. 66v).
William Newman, his name and the date of 1539 inscribed on f.66v.
Robert Lancaster, (perhaps the antinomian publisher, b. 1603/4) his name and the date of 1662 inscribed on f.66v.
E. Mitchel Crosse of Glen Andred, Groombridge, his sale, Sotheby's, London, 27 March, 1922, lot 439. Bought by Quaritch on behalf of the British Museum for £115. (A note on f. [ii] gives the purchase date as 1 April, 1922).
Notes In the 10th century the major initials were erased by scraping and overpainted, traces of the original interlace being still visible underneath.
Gilded initials added in the margin, filling an original omission which indicates that the first campaign of work was unfinished and that it was intended to feature a curious system of placing all initials in the margin even when the sentence began in mid line.
It remains a possibility that the volume may have travelled to the Continent beforehand and the modernisation may even have started there, although there are stylistic and technical links with other material supplemented for Athelstan, such as the Athelstan Psalter (Cotton MS Galba A.XVIII) and the zoomorphic ornament is Anglo-Saxon.
Text begins imperfectly at Mt 21.32, with signs of first and last leaves used as outer covers at some point.
Select bibliography New Palaeographical Society, Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts, etc., Series II, ed. by Edward Maunde Thompson and others (London, 1903-1934), pl. 140, 141.

[Eric G. Millar], British Museum Reproductions from Illuminated Manuscripts, Series 4 (London: British Museum, 1928), pl. 2.

G.L. Micheli, L’enluminure du haut moyen age et les influences irlandaises (Brussels: Editions de la connaissance, 1939), p. 190.

Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts in the British Museum in the Years 1921-1925 (London: British Museum, 1950), pp. 95-96.

Françoise Henry, 'An Irish Manuscript in the British Museum', Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 87 (1957), 147-66, pls 23-29, figs 1-3.

René Crozet, 'Les représentations anthropo-zoomorphiques des évangelistes dans l'enluminure et dans la peinture murale aux époques carolingienne et romane', Cahiers de civilization médiévale, 1 (1958), 182-91 (p. 187).

D. Talbot Rice, English Art 871-1100 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1952), p. 194.

Codices Latini Antiquiores, ed. by E.A. Lowe, 11 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934-1966), II: Great Britain and Ireland (1935), no. 179.

Francis Wormald, 'The 'Winchester School before King Aethelwold' in England before the Conquest, ed. by Peter Clemoes and Katherine Hughes (London: Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 305-13.

Elzbieta Temple, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts 900-1066, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 2 (London: Harvey Miller, 1976), no. 15; pp. 70, 83, 111-12.

Jonathan J.G. Alexander, Insular Manuscripts: 6th to the 9th Century, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 1 (London: Harvey Miller, 1978), no. 46.

Robert Deshman, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Scandinavian Art: An Annotated Bibliography (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984), pp. 12-13, 18, nos. IV.28 and IV.53.

Simon Keynes, 'King Athelstan's Books', in Learning and Literature in Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Michael Lapidge and Helmut Gneuss (Cambridge, 1985) pp. 143-201.

Bonifatius Fischer, Die Lateinischen Evangelien bis zum 10. Jahrhundert, 4 vols (Freiburg: Herder, 1988-1991), I: Varianten zu Matthäus, Vetus Latina die Reste der Altlateinischen Bible: Aus der Geschichte der Lateinischen Bibel, 13, p. 17 (as 'Ha').

Michelle Brown, Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (London: British Library, 1991), pl. 69.

Jonathan J. G. Alexander, Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 168 n. 34.

Robert Deshman, The Benedictional of Æthelwold, Studies in Manuscript Illumination, 9 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 109-110, fig. 101.

Carol A. Farr, The Book of Kells: Its Function and Audience (London: British Library, 1997), p. 82 [with additional bibliography].

Robert Deshman, 'Anglo-Saxon Art: So What's New?', in Preservation and Transmission of Anglo-Saxon Culture: Selected Papers from the 1991 Meeting of the International Society of Anglo-Saxonists, ed. by Paul E. Szarmach and Joel T. Rosenthal, Studies in Medieval Culture, 40 (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1997), pp. 243-69 (pp. 246, 253, fig. 1), repr. in Eye and Mind: Collected Essays in Anglo-Saxon and Early Medieval Art by Robert Deshman, ed. by Adam S. Cohen (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2010), pp. 3-11 (p. 5).

Richard Marsden, 'Ask What I am Called: The Anglo-Saxons and Their Bibles', in The Bible as Book: The Manuscript Tradition, ed. by John L. Sharpe III and Kimberly Van Kampen (London: British Library, 1998), pp. 145-76 (p. 172).

Patrick McGurk, Gospel Books and Early Latin Manuscripts (Aldershot: Variorum, 1998), art. I, pp. 250, 261; art. II, pp. 165-66, 173-74; art. XII, p. 14 and art. XIV, p. 45.

Helmut Gneuss, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 241 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001), no. 299.

Michelle P. Brown, The Lindisfarne Gospels: Society, Spirituality and the Scribe (London: British Library, 2003), p. 281.

K.L. Brown and R.J. Clark, ‘The Lindisfarne Gospels and two other 8th century Anglo-Saxon/Insular manuscripts: pigment identification by Raman microscopy’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35 (2004), 4-12.

Scot McKendrick and Kathleen Doyle, Bible Manuscripts (London: British Library, 2007), pp. 11 and 28, fig. 15.

Sacred: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and their Sacred Texts (London: British Library, 2007), p. 184 [exhibition catalogue].

Carol A. Farr, 'Irish Pocket Gospels in Anglo-Saxon England', in Anglo-Saxon Traces, ed. by Jane Roberts and Leslie Webster, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 405 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2011), pp. 87-100 (pp. 87-89, 92, 94-100).

Richard Gameson, 'The material fabric of early British Books', in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, 6 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987-2012), I: c.400-1100, ed. by Richard Gameson (2012), pp. 13-93 (pp. 22, n. 32, 26, 41).

Richard Gameson, 'Anglo-Saxon scribes and scriptoria', in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, 6 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987-2012), I: c.400-1100, ed. by Richard Gameson (2012), pp. 94-120 (p. 96).

Helen McKee, 'England and the Celtic realms', in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, 6 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987-2012), I: c.400-1100, ed. by Richard Gameson (2012), pp. 338-43 (p. 342).


Images

ff. 1-65
Gospel Book, imperfect (Vulgate version, Irish textual family)
* * *
 
Luke

f. 21v
Luke
Luke

f. 21v
Luke
Luke

f. 22v
Luke
 
Luke

f. 22v
Luke
Luke

f. 22v
Luke
Incipit of Luke's Gospel

f. 23
Incipit of Luke's Gospel
 
Incipit of Luke's Gospel

f. 23
Incipit of Luke's Gospel
Text page

f. 26
Text page
John

f. 49v
John
 
John

f. 49v
John
Interlace initial

f. 50
Interlace initial
Interlace initial

f. 50
Interlace initial
 
Text page

f. 66
Text page

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