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Detailed record for Royal 1 C VII

Title Bible (Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and I-IV Kings) (The 'Rochester Bible')
Origin England, S. E. (Rochester)
Date 2nd quarter of the 12th century
Language Latin
Script Protogothic
Decoration 4 historiated initials in colours at the beginning of Joshua (Moses and Joshua, f. 2v), 1 Kings (Elkanah and his wives, f. 58), 2 Kings (musicians, f. 92), and 4 Kings (Elijah, f. 154v). Large inhabited initials in colours at the prologue (f. 1), Judges (white lions or dogs, f. 27v), Ruth (dragons, f. 52v), the preface to Kings (dragons, f. 55v), and 3 Kings (hybrid lion-birds, f. 120v). Smaller initials in red, blue, and green, some with penwork decoration (e.g., ff. 14v, 42, 60v, 70v, 116v, etc.)
Dimensions in mm 395 x 265 (290 x 180), in two columns
Official foliation ff. vi + 189 (+ 3 unfoliated modern paper flyleaves; ff. i-vi and 184-189 are medieval parchment flyleaves)
Form Parchment codex
Binding BM/BL in-house.
Provenance The cathedral priory of St Andrew, Rochester (?): perhaps to be identified with a Bible in five volumes in the 1202 catalogue of the cathedral library (Royal 5 B XII, f. 2) described as 'Item Josue. Judicum. Regum. .iiii. In alio Novo' (see Cahn 1982 and Richards 1981).
Added leaves from service books, 13th century (ff. i-vi); f. vi includes the antiphon 'Pastor cecus in gregis medio pacem', under the rubric, 'in natali sancti Thome martyris', 1st half of the 13th century.
Added leaves from treaties in physical science, 14th century (ff. 184-189).
Inscribed 'Thomas' and 'Thomas Greyburn' (?), 15th century (ff. 112v, 184v).
William Barrow, (d. 1429) bishop of Bangor (1418) and of Carlisle (1423): inscribed 'Willelm[us] p[er]missio[n]e divina Bangorens[is] eps et Milladensis' (f. 184v).
Thomas a Woode: inscribed with his name, 16th century (f. 186v).
The Old Royal Library (English Royal Library): Westminster inventory number 'no. 507' (f. 1): included in the Inventory of the Upper Library at Westminster of 1542 as 'Libri Iosue, Iudicum, et Regnorum scripti'; probably entered the Royal Library at time of the Dissolution.
Presented to the British Museum by George II in 1757 as part of the Old Royal Library.
Notes Full digital coverage available for this manuscript: see Digitised Manuscripts at http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts.
Attribution to Rochester is based on similarity of initials with two manuscripts of Rochester provenance (Royal 5 D III and Royal 6 B VI), according to Kauffmann (1975).
The manuscript is associated with the New Testament volume, Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery MS 18, as a part of the same set.
Quire signatures, pricking.
Select bibliography Henry Shaw, Alphabets and Numbers of the Middle Ages, intro. by Rowan Watson (London: Bracken Books, 1994; first published as Alphabets, Numerals and Devices of the Middle Ages London, William Pickering, 1845), pp. 16-17.

W. R. Tymms and M. D. Wyatt, The Art of Illuminating as Practised in Europe from the Earliest Times (London: Day and Sons, 1860; repr. Studio Editions, 1987), pl. XII.2.

Georg Swarzenski, Die Salzburger Malerei, 2 vols (Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1913), I, 75 n. 5.

George F. Warner and Julius P. Gilson, Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Old Royal and King’s Collections, 4 vols (London: British Museum, 1921), I, pp. 14-15.

Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Walters Art Gallery, exhibition catalogue, ed. by Dorothy Miner (Baltimore: Walters Art Gallery, 1949), no. 19, pl. XIII.

C. R. Dodwell, The Canterbury School of Illumination 1066-1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954), p. 77, pls. 18a, 19a.

T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1100-1216, Oxford History of English Art, 2 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957), p. 63-5, 160-1, 164, 169, pls 18a, 19a.

Otto Pächt, C. R. Dodwell, and Francis Wormald, The St. Albans Psalter (Albani Psalter) (London: Warburg Institute, 1960), p. 170 n. 7.

C. M. Kauffmann, 'The Bury Bible', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 29 (1966), 60-81 (p. 69, pl. 29e).

C. M. Kauffmann, Romanesque Manuscripts 1066-1190, Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 3 (London: Harvey Miller, 1975), no. 45.

C. M. Kauffmann, The Bible in British Art: 10th to 20th Centuries, Victoria & Albert Museum, Exhibition September 1977-January 1978 ([n.p.]: Cowell, 1978), no. 4.

The Benedictines in Britain, British Library Series, 3 (London: British Library, 1980), no. 101, pl. 41 [exhibition catalogue].

Katharine M. Waller, 'The Library, Scriptorium and Community of Rochester Cathedral Priory c. 1080-1150' (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Liverpool, 1980), pp. 127, 128, n. 4, 129, nn. 1, 4, 5, 270, 360.

Mary Richards, 'A Decorated Vulgate set from 12th-Century Rochester, England', The Journal of the Walter Art Gallery, 39 (1981), 59-67 (pp. 59, 62-66, fig. 3, 4, 5).

Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1982), no. 33.

English Romanesque Art 1066-1200, Hayward Gallery, London 5 April-8 July 1984 (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1984), no. 24.

Otto Pächt, Buchmalerei des Mittelalters (Munich: Prestel, 1984), p. 28, pl. 138.

Mary Richards, Texts and Their Traditions in the Medieval Library of Rochester Cathedral Priory, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 78, part 3 (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1988), pp. 19, 62, 79-83.

English Benedictine Libraries: The Shorter Catalogues, ed. by R. Sharpe and others, Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues, 4 (London: British Library, 1996), B79.114.

Maylis Baylé, ‘Architecture et enluminure dans le monde normand’, in Manuscrits et enluminures dans le monde normand (Xe-XVe siècles), ed. by Pierre Bouet and Monique Dosdat (Caen: Presses Universitaires, 1999), pp. 51-68 (p. 63).

The Libraries of King Henry VIII, ed. by J. P. Carley, Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues 7 (London: British Library, 2000), H2. 755.

Diane J. Reilly, 'French Romanesque Giant Bibles and their English Relatives: Blood Relatives or adopted Children', Scriptorium: Revue internationale des études relative aux manuscrits, 56 (2002), 294-311 (p. 310, pl. 23a).

C. M. Kauffmann, Biblical Imagery in Medieval England 700-1500 (London: Harvey Miller, 2003), pp. 62, 87, 94, pl. 62.

Scot McKendrick and Kathleen Doyle, Bible Manuscripts (London: British Library, 2007), no. 69.

Scot McKendrick, John Lowden, and Kathleen Doyle, Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination (London: British Library, 2011), no. 102 [exhibition catalogue].
Last revised: 17 September 2009


Images
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Inhabited initial

f. 1
Inhabited initial
Decorated initials

f. 2
Decorated initials
Joshua

f. 2v
Joshua
 
Joshua

f. 2v
Joshua
Inhabited initial

f. 27v
Inhabited initial
Inhabited initial

f. 27v
Inhabited initial
 
Text page

f. 49v
Text page
Inhabited  initial

f. 52v
Inhabited initial
Zoomorphic initial

f. 55v
Zoomorphic initial
 
Elkanah

f. 58
Elkanah
Elkanah

f. 58
Elkanah
David

f. 92
David
 
David

f. 92
David
Violin player

f. 92
Violin player
Coloured initial

f. 114v
Coloured initial
 
Text page

f. 115
Text page
Inhabited initial

f. 120v
Inhabited initial
Inhabited initial

f. 120v
Inhabited initial
 
Elijah

f. 154v
Elijah
Elijah

f. 154v
Elijah
Elijah

f. 154v
Elijah
 

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