From 1915 Italy’s army had military chaplains, who wrote many exhortative booklets like this. Prior to 1915 it was a lay state. Here the author considers the war to be self-defence. He supports Pope Benedict XV’s position on the war, but passes over the Pope’s efforts to establish peace between the Catholic nations. He underlines the importance of humanitarian efforts, for example the exchange of prisoners, and the role of military chaplains.