Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519), painter, sculptor, architect and engineer, kept notes and drawings of his studies, ideas and inventions. Over 7,000 pages have survived, including this notebook known as Codex Arundel after its English collector Thomas Howard, 14th earl of Arundel.
The structure of the notebook shows that it was not originally a bound volume. It was put together after Leonardo's death from loose papers of various types and sizes, some indicating Leonardo's habit of carrying smaller bundles of notes to document observations outdoors.
Many of the pages were written in 1508; others come from different periods in Leonardo's life, covering practically the whole of his career. The notebook features many topics, including mechanics, the flow of rivers, astronomy, optics, architecture and the flight of birds, demonstrating Leonardo's intense curiosity.
The manuscript, in Italian, is written in Leonardo's characteristic 'mirror writing', left-handed and moving from right to left.
Examples of well-known images from this manuscript include:
'Study for an underwater breathing apparatus, f.24v'
Leonardo comes up with a solution that consists of two tubes, one for inhaling and the other for exhaling. In order to protect the upper parts of the tubes from the waves, he devises a float, and then he explains that the tubes are built in such a way that they do not break. The strategy Leonardo adopts is to make the tubes flexible by articulating them at intervals, and by having wires in these articulations.
Then, Leonardo advises that a sack should be placed below the chin of the apparatus to collect waste; the sack could be emptied without compromising the functioning of the apparatus. Particularly significant here is the way Leonardo details the structure of his apparatus by making use of 'transparent' and 'exploded' views, which are graphic techniques that he explored extensively in his studies of human anatomy.
See more of Leonardo notebook on Turning the Pages™.