Samuel Solomonovich Koteliansky (1880–1955) was a Russian translator and literary associate who arrived in Britain in 1911. Koteliansky was a member of a literary circle which included D H and Frieda Lawrence, Mark and Marjorie Gertler, Lady Ottoline Morrell, Leonard and Virginia Woolf and Katherine Mansfield. His archive at the British Library includes long correspondence with many members of his circle providing an insight into the impact that the First World War had on the literary and artistic worlds.

As a Russian émigré Koteliansky was in a position to pass correspondence to Russia. One person with whom Koteliansky had a connection was the Russian writer, Maxim Gorky (1868–1936). This image shows a memorandum about Gorky’s magazine, New Life (Новая Жизнь), for which Koteliansky was attempting to secure the participation of a number of leading British literary and political figures including Ramsay McDonald and George Bernard Shaw. Messages from members of the British Socialist and Labour Movements supportive of the Russian Revolution, and praising what they hoped would be the end of ‘the tyranny of Czardom’, were also sent to Koteliansky.