William Hone's biting satire The Political Alphabet, with illustrations by George Cruikshank, was originally produced around 1820 during the aftermath of the Peterloo Massacre in August 1819. It is a response to intense social unrest that derived from factors including extreme poverty and the lack of political representation for many thousands of British people. Hone and Cruikshank target the pillars of power: the King, parliament, law, the church and the aristocracy. This issue dates from around 1830, but its messages would still have resonated with those campaigning for political reform. It was not until 1832 that the first Reform Act was passed in parliament, enabling a new portion of adult men to vote.