This handwritten volume, known as the Newcastle Manuscript, is an anthology of verse and prose made for Sir William Cavendish (1592–1676), the first Duke of Newcastle. It includes 98 poems by John Donne and masques and poems by Ben Jonson. There are also 85 poems by a physician named Dr Richard Andrews, who was an acquaintance of both writers.
Although print was introduced into England in 1475, many writers still circulated their works as manuscripts in the 16th and 17th centuries. Rather than reproducing their texts for the anonymous masses, they preferred to present them to select groups of noble friends and potential patrons. These were then shared and hand-copied by other readers and scribes in private collections like this one.
John Donne in manuscript
John Donne was famously wary of print, publishing just a few works in his lifetime. But his poems were copied out by hand more than any other writer of his day. In a Latin verse addressed to Dr Andrews, Donne argued that ‘what is written out by hand is in greater reverence’ than print.
With this in mind, it is perhaps surprising that Donne’s racy ‘Elegy: To his Mistress Going to Bed’ was included in these elite manuscripts, but banned from the first print editions.
The manuscript poems digitised here include ‘Elegy:To his Mistress Going to Bed’ (ff. 95v–96r), ‘The Apparition’ (f. 112r), ‘A Valediction Forbidding Mourning’ (ff. 112v–13r), ‘The Good Morrow’ (f. 113r–v), ‘Song: Go and catch a falling star’ (f. 113v), ‘The Flea’ (f. 124r–v) and Holy Sonnets including ‘Death be not proud’ (f. 140v).
As the poems were transcribed, subtle changes crept in. For example, in this copy of ‘To His Mistress Going to Bed’, line 17 reads ‘Of with those shooes, and then softly [not ‘safely’] tred’.
Ben Jonson and Cavendish
Sir William Cavendish was a friend and patron of Ben Jonson. However, their relationship was more complex than the typical early modern association of sponsor and artist. Cavendish was an aspiring writer, and Jonson instructed and mentored him. Throughout his long life Cavendish wrote, published and produced numerous poems and plays, including elegies for Jonson after his death. Critics often compare Cavendish’s writing style to Jonson’s, and he has been associated with the Sons, or Tribe, of Ben (a group of Jonson’s followers).
Totalling 208 leaves, the inclusion of so many of Jonson’s poems and masques in the Newcastle Manuscript demonstrates Cavendish’s interest in his career and creative methods.
Digitised here is ‘My picture left in Scotland’ (f. 47v) which is based on a poem that Jonson sent to William Drummond of Hawthornden after staying with him in Scotland. In the poem Jonson provides a candid, yet comic description of his physical appearance: ‘My numbers of graye hayres’, ‘My Mountayne Belly, & my Rockey face’. The ‘Epitaph on Katherine, Lady Ogel’ (f. 55r) was written to commemorate the death of Cavendish’s mother, Lady Ogel. The pencil designs surrounding the poem are a rough sketch of a design for her memorial tablet.
 The Latin verse is not part of this manuscript, but it appears in the 1635 edition of Donne’s Poems, p. 278. The English translation is by W Garrod in ‘The Latin Poem Addressed by Donne to Dr. Andrews’, The Review of English Studies, 21(81) (Jan. 1045), pp. 38–42. There is some debate over whether this Dr Andrews is the same one whose poems appear in the Newcastle Manuscript.
I nowe thinke love is rather deafe then blynde
or els it could not bee
Whom I adore so much should so sleight mee
shoulde slight mee
And cast my suite behinde
I’me sure my Languidge to her is as sweete
And all my closes meete
In numbers of as suttle feete
As makes the yongest hee
Thatt sits in shadowe of Appolloes tree
O but my consci^ous feares that flye, my thoughts betweene
my prompt mee, Ix ^ that shee hath seene
My numbers of graye hayres
Tould six and forty yeares
Read so much = wast, as shee cannot embrace
My Mountayne Belly, & my Rockey face
And all these through her eye have stopt her eares
To Mr Ben: Johnson in his Jorney
by Mr Craven
When wise, and learninge are so hardly sett
That from their needfull meanes they must be bard
unless by going harde they mayntnance gett
Well maye Ben: Johnson say the world goes hard
This was Mr Ben: Johnsons Answer of
It may Ben Johnson slander so his feete
For when the profitt with the payne doth meete
Although the gate were hard the gayne is sweete.
- Full title:
- A folio volume of works in verse and prose by John Donne, Ben Jonson, Dr Richard Andrews and others. Compiled for Sir William Cavendish.
- 17th century
- Manuscript / Drawing / Illustration / Image
- John Donne , Ben Jonson , Richard Andrews , John Rolleston [scribe]
- Held by:
- British Library
- Harley MS 4955
- Article by:
- Andrew Dickson
- Renaissance writers, Poetry
John Donne's work includes passionate and explicit love poems and intense religious meditations. Andrew Dickson explores the poet's many identities, from Catholic child to Protestant adult, from womaniser to devoted husband, and from trainee lawyer, secretary and Member of Parliament to Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral.
- Article by:
- Andrew Dickson
- Power, politics and religion, Poetry, Renaissance writers, Language, word play and text
Andrew Dickson explores John Donne's fascination with death as a literary, philosophical and emotional subject, and examines its presence in his poetry and treatises.
- Article by:
- Michael Donkor
- Renaissance writers, Language, word play and text, Poetry
Michael Donkor explains what makes John Donne a metaphysical poet, and looks at the creative and distinctive ways in which Donne used metaphysical techniques.
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