It has been suggested
that William Pickering (1796-1854) was the first publisher, and
Archibald Leighton (1784-1841) the first binder to use cloth, which
was initially plain and without texture, for edition binding.
The fly embossing press
was introduced. It was used for heavily embossing designs, chiefly
on leather. Designs included the Cathedral style on Bibles and devotional
1825 Leighton developed
a special bookcloth.
1827 William Burn invented
the rolling machine which replaced the lengthy hand beating of books.
The new machine was unpopular with many workers who lost their jobs.