M. E. S. (Miss) E. L. Budgen, Episodes of Insect Life
(Reeve, Benham & Reeve, 1849)

Bound in blue ribbed cloth blocked in gold. Signed STAPLES SC, which has been identified with Thomas Staples, bookbinders' tool cutter of Holborn

Insect life
  Publishers' bookbindings


The manufacture of book cloth became a separate business. Previously binders had produced their own.

Relievo leather bindings, which featured heavily embossed designs, were popular. The designer Owen Jones specialised in them, and they were frequently bound by Remnant and Edmonds.

Ink blocking on cloth (cheaper than gold blocking) was introduced. By the end of the decade there was a proliferation of inexpensive editions with ink-blocked bindings.

Papier-mâché designs evolved. The term, although widely used, is not strictly accurate since many examples were made with other materials, particularly plaster.