from The Penny Magazine, 24 September 1842, shows a scene
from the firm of Westleys and Clark. Although few machines are present,
the number of books to be bound, and the fact that the numerous
workers are all engaged on separate tasks is reminiscent of a factory
production line, and a far cry from the traditional, small hand
binding workshops. By 1862 Westleys had over 50 employees. The five
major Victorian trade binders were Westleys, Bone & Son, Burn, Edmonds
& Remnants, and Leighton, Son & Hodge.