The crossover between medicine and confectionery has always been noticeable, and in the early days of sweetmaking there was no real distinction between the two. In fact, many pharmaceutical treatises, such as this translation of the work of the physician Renodaeus, double up as confectioners' manuals. For centuries, sugar was available only from the apothercaries' shop, and it was considered a vital medicine -- an idea inherited from Arab physicians. Syrups, candied fruits, sugar comfits and sugary pills were all part of the pharmacy, right up until the late 19th century -- and many modern sweets, such as cough candy, still have medicinal aspects and are bought from chemists. These pages contain medicinal recipes for candied nuts, plums and quinces.