Timeline of the Women’s Liberation Movement

Explore the chronology and the context of the Women’s Liberation Movement in 1960s to 1980s Britain.



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Jump to:  1960s  |  1970s  |  1980s

1960s

1961 - Introduction of the contraceptive pill

4 December 1961

The contraceptive pill was launched in 1961. The pill suppresses women's fertility using the hormones progestogen or oestrogen (or both). In 1961 it was available to married women only, but availability was extended in 1967....

4 December 1961

The contraceptive pill was launched in 1961. The pill suppresses women's fertility using the hormones progestogen or oestrogen (or both). In 1961 it was available to married women only, but availability was extended in 1967. The impact was revolutionary for women and men but also revealed that sexual liberation did not always mean women's liberation, as Beatrix Campbell describes.

You can find out more about contraception and reproductive rights in Sex, Sexuality, Love and Friendship and Activism.

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1964 - Married Women's Property Act revision

25 March 1964

The Married Women's Property Act was first introduced in 1870. It allowed women to be the legal owners of money they earned, and to inherit property. Prior to this Act, everything a woman owned or earned became her husbands property when she married.....

25 March 1964

The Married Women's Property Act was first introduced in 1870. It allowed women to be the legal owners of money they earned, and to inherit property. Prior to this Act, everything a woman owned or earned became her husband's property when she married. Revisions in 1882 and 1893 extended married women's rights. The 1964 revision allowed married women to keep half of any savings they'd made from the allowance paid to them by their husbands. This gave women a little more financial independence, but also provided official recognition that many women were still dependent on their husbands for their income in the first place.

You can find out more about the impact of the Act and other legislation relating to marriage in Family and Children.

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1967 - Abortion Act

27 October 1967

The 1967 Act legalised abortion in the UK, for women who were up to 24 weeks pregnant. Two consenting doctors had to agree that continuing the pregnancy would be harmful either to the woman's physical or mental health, or to the child's physical or mental health when it was born.....

27 October 1967

The 1967 Act legalised abortion in the UK, for women who were up to 24 weeks pregnant. Two consenting doctors had to agree that continuing the pregnancy would be harmful either to the woman's physical or mental health, or to the child's physical or mental health when it was born.

You can find out more about the Women's Liberation Movement's campaigns around abortion and reproductive rights in Activism.

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1968 - Ford machinists' strike, Dagenham

7 June 1968

In 1968, 850 women machinists at the Ford factory in Dagenham went on strike over equal pay. They disputed the classification of their work as unskilled - a label which seemed to justify them being paid less than their male colleagues...

7 June 1968

In 1968, 850 women machinists at the Ford factory in Dagenham went on strike over equal pay. They disputed the classification of their work as unskilled - a label which seemed to justify them being paid less than their male colleagues.

You can find out more about this strike, and other campaigns around equal pay for work of equal value in Equality and Work and Activism.

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1968 - Barbara Castle becomes First Secretary of State

6 April 1968

Barbara Castle (1910-2002) was elected to Parliament in 1945. She was an MP for the Labour Party and served as Minister of State for Overseas Development, Minister of State for Transport and Secretary of State for Employment and Productivity...

6 April 1968

Barbara Castle (1910-2002) was elected to Parliament in 1945. She was an MP for the Labour Party and served as Minister of State for Overseas Development, Minister of State for Transport and Secretary of State for Employment and Productivity. In 1968 she was appointed First Secretary of State - she is the only woman ever to have held this position.

You can find out more about women in politics in Politics and Legislation.

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1969 - Bernadette Devlin becomes youngest MP

17 April 1969

Six days before her 22nd birthday, Northern Irish socialist and republican Bernadette Devlin became the youngest member of the British parliament. She is still the youngest woman ever to have been elected as an MP...

17 April 1969

Six days before her 22nd birthday, Northern Irish socialist and republican Bernadette Devlin became the youngest member of the British parliament. She is still the youngest woman ever to have been elected as an MP.

You can find out more about women in politics in Politics and Legislation, and women in Northern Ireland in Race, Place and Nation.

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1970s

1970 - National WLM conference, Oxford

27 February - 1 March 1970

More than 600 women attended the first national WLM conference in 1970, with a desire to debate a wide variety of issues affecting women...

27 February - 1 March 1970

More than 600 women attended the first national WLM conference in 1970, with a desire to debate a wide variety of issues affecting women. The first four WLM demands were discussed:

1. Equal pay
2. Equal educational and job opportunities
3. Free contraception and abortion on demand
4. Free 24-hour nurseries

You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1970 - Leeds clothing workers strike

February 1970

A strike by Leeds women clothing workers was initiated after the union accepted a low wage rise that discriminated against women. 20,000 women from 45 factories marched in protest...

February 1970

A strike by Leeds women clothing workers was initiated after the union accepted a low wage rise that discriminated against women. 20,000 women from 45 factories marched in protest. The event was later made into the Play for Today film Leeds - United!

You can find out more about the ways in which women campaigned and protested in Activism. You can find out more about equal pay and equality legislation in Equality and Work.

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1970 - Miss World Protest

20 November 1970

The Miss World beauty pageant had been held annually in the UK since 1951. Women from all over the world competed within their own countries...

20 November 1970

The Miss World beauty pageant had been held annually in the UK since 1951. Women from all over the world competed within their own countries, and then came to London to compete for 'Miss World' crown. Feminists threw flour-bombs at the 1970 Miss World contest in 1970, protesting against what they saw as the objectification of women. They found the very idea of judging women solely on their looks to be insulting and undermining. Jo Robinson was one of the women who took part in the protest.

You can find out more about the protest and the reasons for it in Bodies, Minds and Spirits and Activism.

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1971 - National WLM conference, Skegness

15 - 17 October 1971

The four WLM demands discussed in 1970 at the conference in Oxford were passed in 1971 in Skegness...

15 - 17 October 1971

The four WLM demands discussed in 1970 at the conference in Oxford were passed in 1971 in Skegness.

You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1971 - Chiswick women's refuge opened

1971

The first women's refuge was set up in Chiswick in 1971 by Erin Pizzey. It provided protection for women who were being abused by their husbands and needed a safe place to stay...

1971

The first women's refuge was set up in Chiswick in 1971 by Erin Pizzey. It provided protection for women who were being abused by their husbands and needed a safe place to stay. The women could also bring their children to the refuge with them. Eventually refuges across the country were brought together into one national organisation, Women's Aid, in 1974.

You can find out more about women's refuges and support for abused women in Bodies, Minds and Spirits, Family and Children and Activism.

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1971 - National WLM conferences, Manchester and London

25-26 March 1972 (Manchester) November 1972 (London)

The first women's refuge was set up in Chiswick in 1971 by Erin Pizzey. It provided protection for women who were being abused by their husbands and needed a safe place to stay...

25-26 March 1972 (Manchester) November 1972 (London)

National WLM conferences were held in Manchester and London. Debates arose around domestic labour and the 'need to liberate women from -- or as some see it to give just pay for -- work done both inside and outside the home.' The four demands also continued to be debated.

You can find out more about the national WLM conferences in Activism.

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1972 - First edition of Spare Rib published

June 1972

Spare Rib was a feminist magazine published by a collective founded by Rosie Boycott and Marsha Rowe and including Sue O'Sullivan and Amanda Sebestyen....

June 1972

Spare Rib was a feminist magazine published by a collective founded by Rosie Boycott and Marsha Rowe and including Sue O'Sullivan and Amanda Sebestyen. An early proposal declared 'There is the most urgent need for a magazine that will reach ALL women - that it, women who are frustrated by the limitations of existing magazines'. It included articles written by women about their experiences of education, family, health, domestic violence and employment, among many other issues. In addition to publishing the magazine, the collective organised campaigning marches.

You can find out more about women's writing and publishing in Changing Cultures and the Arts.

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1972 - Red Rag Collective formed

1972

Barbara Taylor was one of the founder members of the Red Rag Collective, which published a feminist magazine around twice a year...

1972

Barbara Taylor was one of the founder members of the Red Rag Collective, which published a feminist magazine around twice a year. The magazine was 'for women in the WLM, and is a forum for debate of issues raised by the WLM'.

You can find out more about women's writing and publishing in Changing Cultures and the Arts.

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1972 - Night Cleaners' strikes

1972

The Women's Liberation Movement sought to unionise night cleaners, who worked in dangerous and low-paid jobs. Two strikes in the early 1970s resulted in greater awareness of the cleaners' (mainly women) working conditions...

1972

The Women's Liberation Movement sought to unionise night cleaners, who worked in dangerous and low-paid jobs. Two strikes in the early 1970s resulted in greater awareness of the cleaners' (mainly women) working conditions. Unionisation was difficult, especially as cleaning work was increasingly privatised during the 1970s. Sally Alexander was active in supporting the women cleaners.

You can find out more about the Night Cleaners campaign in Activism.

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1973 - National WLM conference, Bristol

1973

A national WLM conference was held in Bristol. Feminist and WLM member Lee Comer recalls 'At the Bristol conference I stood up in the plenary and said "Are there any fiction writers here because what we should do is publish our own fiction...

1973

A national WLM conference was held in Bristol. Feminist and WLM member Lee Comer recalls 'At the Bristol conference I stood up in the plenary and said "Are there any fiction writers here because what we should do is publish our own fiction." So a few people came forward and we formed a little workshop and then I took it upon myself to collect the stories and stuff and we published it.' The book was publised as Wedlocked Women in 1974.

You can find out more about the national WLM conferences in Activism.

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1973 - First UK Rape Crisis formed

1973

Rape Crisis is a network of centres across the UK that 'provides co-ordination and support to affiliated member groups and campaigns and lobbies to raise awareness of the issues of sexual violence in the wider community and with local, regional and national government...

1973

Rape Crisis is a network of centres across the UK that 'provides co-ordination and support to affiliated member groups and campaigns and lobbies to raise awareness of the issues of sexual violence in the wider community and with local, regional and national government.' In 1973 the organisation was set up in England and Wales. Rape Crisis Scotland set up a centre in Glasgow in 1976 and another in Edinburgh in 1978. Aileen Christianson is a feminist academic who was actively involved in Rape Crisis Scotland for a long period of time. She has also written about women writers in Scotland.

You can find out more about campaigns against violence against women in Activism.

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1973 - Brixton Black Women's Group is formed

1973

Brixton Black Women's Group campaigned on many issues including racism in education provision, and the discriminatory practice of the contraceptive drug Depo Provera being prescribed to black women on a long-term basis...

1973

Brixton Black Women's Group campaigned on many issues including racism in education provision, and the discriminatory practice of the contraceptive drug Depo Provera being prescribed to black women on a long-term basis. The group remained active until 1986. Gail Lewis was active in the group. Founder member Olive Morris became active in the Black Panther movement and went on to campaign around many issues including housing, education and policing.

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1973 - Virago Press founded

1973

Virago Press was founded by Carmen Callil in 1973. In 1974, Ursula Owen joined as a founder director. Virago is dedicated to publishing women's literature and was set up to 'drag women's writing off the sidelines...

1973

Virago Press was founded by Carmen Callil in 1973. In 1974, Ursula Owen joined as a founder director. Virago is dedicated to publishing women's literature and was set up to 'drag women's writing off the sidelines'. In the early 1970s, Callil was 'inspired by the explosive energy of the underground press of the time, but frustrated by its lack of engagement with women’s ideas, their work, their opinions, their history'. Many of the women whose stories you can hear about on this site have had work published by Virago.

You can find out more about women's writing and publishing in Changing Cultures and the Arts.

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1974 - National WLM conference, Edinburgh

July 1974

A national WLM conference was held in Edinburgh in 1974. At this conference, two demands were added to the first four...

July 1974

A national WLM conference was held in Edinburgh in 1974. At this conference, two demands were added to the first four:

Legal and financial independence for all women
The right to a self-defined sexuality. An end to discrimination against lesbians

You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1974 - Welsh National Women's Liberation Conference, Aberystwyth

1974

The first Welsh National Women's Liberation Conference was held in Aberystyth in 1974. Jane Hutt was at thie time working with others to develop a strong independent network of feminist activists in Wales....

July 1974

The first Welsh National Women's Liberation Conference was held in Aberystyth in 1974. Jane Hutt was at thie time working with others to develop a strong independent network of feminist activists in Wales.

You can find out more in Race, Place and Nation. Deirdre Beddoe talks about her research into Welsh Women's History in Education.

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1974 - National Women's Aid Federation set up

1974

The National Women's Aid Federation (now known as Women's Aid) was set up in England to bring together all the women's refuges and shelters across the country...

1974

The National Women's Aid Federation (now known as Women's Aid) was set up in England to bring together all the women's refuges and shelters across the country. Women's Aid Northern Ireland was set up in 1975, and Scottish Women's Aid was set up in 1976. You can find out more about Women's Aid in Activism.

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1975 - National WLM conference, Manchester

1975

A national WLM conference was held in Manchester. Women's Aid emerged as a WLM conference issue - there was a split within the refuge movement between refuges aligned with Erin Pizzey's philosophy and orientation and those aligned with the WLM...

1975

A national WLM conference was held in Manchester. Women's Aid emerged as a WLM conference issue - there was a split within the refuge movement between refuges aligned with Erin Pizzey's philosophy and orientation and those aligned with the WLM. The National Women's Aid Federation was begun by those aligned with the WLM.

You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1975 - Sex Discrimination Act

12 November 1975

The Sex Discrimination Act was passed to 'render unlawful certain kinds of sex discrimination and discrimination on the ground of marriage, and establish a Commission with the function of working towards the elimination of such discrimination and promoting equality of opportunity between men and women generally; and for related purposes.'...

12 November 1975

The Sex Discrimination Act was passed to 'render unlawful certain kinds of sex discrimination and discrimination on the ground of marriage, and establish a Commission with the function of working towards the elimination of such discrimination and promoting equality of opportunity between men and women generally; and for related purposes.' Lesley Abdela talks about open sex discrimination in the workplace before the legislation, and Sue Lopez discusses the case of 11-year-old Theresa Bennett, who was banned from playing football and took her case to court under the sex discrimination legislation.

You can find out more in Politics and Legislation and Equality and Work.

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1975 - UN International Year of Women

1975

The United Nations declared 1975 an International Year for Women in order to raise global awareness of women's rights...

1975

The United Nations declared 1975 an International Year for Women in order to raise global awareness of women's rights. Since 1975 International Women's Day has been celebrated annually on 8 March.

You can find out more about national and international campaigns around women's rights in Activism.

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1975 - Employment Protection Act

12 November 1975

The Employment Protection Act made statutory maternity pay a requirement for employers, and legislated against dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy...

12 November 1975

The Employment Protection Act made statutory maternity pay a requirement for employers, and legislated against dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy.

You can find out more about the legislation that has affected women's lives and rights in Politics and Legislation.

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1975 - National Abortion Campaign formed

1975

The National Abortion Campaign (NAC) was formed in 1975 to defend women's rights to make decisions about their own bodies. Jan McKenley worked as a coordinator the the NAC for several years...

1975

The National Abortion Campaign (NAC) was formed in 1975 to defend women's rights to make decisions about their own bodies. Jan McKenley worked as a coordinator the the NAC for several years.

You can find out more in Activism and Bodies, Minds and Spirits.

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1975 - General Synod vote

1975

The General Synod (the administrative body of the Church of England) voted that there was 'no fundamental objection to the ordination of women'...

1975

The General Synod (the administrative body of the Church of England) voted that there was 'no fundamental objection to the ordination of women'. However, women were not actually granted this right until 1992 and the first women were ordained in 1994. Una Kroll was one of the women who was active in this campaign, and she was ordained in 1997. In 2012 the General Syond voted against the ordination of women as bishops.

You can find out more about equality in religion in Equality and Work.

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1976 - National WLM conference, Newcastle

23-25 April 1976

A national WLM conference was held in Newcastle in 1976. Issued raised included debates over the 6th demand, class and lesbianism...

23-25 April 1976

A national WLM conference was held in Newcastle in 1976. Issued raised included debates over the 6th demand, class and lesbianism. There were discussions on the potential of a further demand being added: 'calling on men to share hosuework and childcare equally.' You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1976 - Women's Therapy Centre set up

9 April 1976

Susie Orbach and Luise Eichenbaum identified a need for a space for women to be able to come together to share experiences and receive therapy...

9 April 1976

Susie Orbach and Luise Eichenbaum identified a need for a space for women to be able to come together to share experiences and receive therapy. They set up the Women's Therapy Centre in London in 1976 and the Women's Therapy Centre Insitute in New York in 1981.

You can find out more about women and therapy in Bodies, Minds and Spirits.

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1976 - Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceedings Act

26 October 1976

This act enabled married women to obtain a court order against their violent husbands without divorce or separation proceedings. A court could order a man out of the matrimonial home, whether or not he owned it or tenancy was in his name...

26 October 1976

This act enabled married women to obtain a court order against their violent husbands without divorce or separation proceedings. A court could order a man out of the matrimonial home, whether or not he owned it or tenancy was in his name. Problems arose because this protection did not apply to unmarried women.

Ellen Malos talks about her experience of domestic violence and legal proceedings in Family and Children.

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1976 - Grunwick Film Processing Laboratories strike, Willesden

23 August 1976-14 July 1978

The workers at the Grunwick Film Processing Laboratories went on strike over unfair dismissals of colleagues, pay inequality and racist company practices...

23 August 1976-14 July 1978

The workers at the Grunwick Film Processing Laboratories went on strike over unfair dismissals of colleagues, pay inequality and racist company practices. The strike was led by Jayaben Desai and many of the strikers were working-class Asian women. Amrit Wilson interviewed Jayaben Desai for her book Finding a Voice: Asian Women in Britian.

You can find out more about the strike in Equality and Work.

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1977 - National WLM conference, London

1977

A national WLM conference was held in London in 1977. The conference was notable for the appearance of 'revoluionary feminism' led by Sheila Jeffreys...

1977

A national WLM conference was held in London in 1977. The conference was notable for the appearance of 'revoluionary feminism' led by Sheila Jeffreys. Jalna Hanmer discusses this in her interview.

You can find out more about the WLM conferences in Activism.

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1977 - Reclaim the Night march

1977

Edinburgh women held the first Reclaim the Night march in Britain. This march had started the previous year in Belgium and Italy and then continued across Europe during the 1970s...

1977

Edinburgh women held the first Reclaim the Night march in Britain. This march had started the previous year in Belgium and Italy and then continued across Europe during the 1970s. The London Feminist Network revived the march in 2004 and since then they have become an annual event again. Reclaim the Night marches are organised to 'demand justice for rape survivors'.

You can find out more about campaigns against violence against women in Activism.

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1978 - National WLM conference, Birmingham

7-9 April 1978

The final national WLM conference was held in Birmingham. A final demand was added to the first six...

7-9 April 1978

The final national WLM conference was held in Birmingham. A final demand was added to the first six:

Freedom for all women from intimidation by the threat or use of violence or sexual coercion regardless of marital status; and an end to the laws, assumptions and institutions which perpetuate male dominance and aggression to women.

Also, amid some controversy, 'the right to a self-defined sexuality' was split off and added as a preface to all the demands.

You can find out more about the national WLM conferences in Activism.

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1978 - Organisation of Women of Asian and African Descent (OWAAD) founded

February 1978

Stella Dadzie co-founded the Organisation of Women of Asian and African Descent (OWAAD) in 1978 to campaign on issues including immigration and deportation...

February 1978

Stella Dadzie co-founded the Organisation of Women of Asian and African Descent (OWAAD) in 1978 to campaign on issues including immigration and deportation. OWAAD functioned as an umbrella organisation supporting smaller groups across the UK.

You can find out more about the work of OWAAD in Race, Place and Nation and Activism.

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1979 - Southall Black Sisters formed

February 1979

Southall Black Sisters was formed in 1979 to support all black and Asian women living in the UK through campaigns, providing legal advice and information and offering counselling...

February 1979

Southall Black Sisters was formed in 1979 to support all black and Asian women living in the UK through campaigns, providing legal advice and information and offering counselling. Pragna Patel is the director of Southall Black Sisters.

You can find out more in Race, Place and Nation.

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1979 - Margaret Thatcher becomes first woman Prime Minister

4 May 1979

Margaret Thatcher, Conservative politician and MP for Finchley from 1959-1992, became the first woman Prime Minister of the UK in 1979...

4 May 1979

Margaret Thatcher, Conservative politician and MP for Finchley from 1959-1992, became the first woman Prime Minister of the UK in 1979. Serving until 1990, her 11 years in post make her the longest serving British Prime Minister. Her hard-line politics led to her being known as the 'Iron Lady'.

You can find out more about women in politics in Politics and Legislation.

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1980s

1980 - 300 Group founded

1980

The 300 Group was formed to campaign and lobby for equal representation of women in Parliament and public office...

1980

The 300 Group was formed to campaign and lobby for equal representation of women in Parliament and public office. 300 is roughly half the number of seats in the House of Commons. Lesley Abdela was co-founder of the 300 Group.

You can find out more in Politics and Legislation.

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1980 - Sheba Feminist Press founded

1980

Sheba Feminist Press was an independent publisher formed in 1980 to 'give priority to the work of women writers who continue to be marginalized'...

1980

Sheba Feminist Press was an independent publisher formed in 1980 to 'give priority to the work of women writers who continue to be marginalized'. Sue O'Sullivan worked for Sheba Feminist Press for several years from 1986.

You can find out more about the work of feminist publishing houses in Changing Cultures and the Arts.

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1981 - Greenham Common Peace Camp set up

5 September 1981

A group of women from Wales marched from Cardiff to RAF Greenham in Berkshire in 1981. They were protesting against the British government's decision to site nuclear missiles there...

5 September 1981

A group of women from Wales marched from Cardiff to RAF Greenham in Berkshire in 1981. They were protesting against the British government's decision to site nuclear missiles there. Rebecca Johnson lived at the camp from 1982 to 1987.

You can find out more about the Greenham Common Peace Camp in Race, Place and Nation and Activism.

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1981 - Shocking Pink Collectve set up

5 September 1981

Shocking Pink Collectve was set up. The collective included Jo Brew, Louise Carolin, Ilona, Rebecca Oliver and Angie Brew...

5 September 1981

Shocking Pink Collectve was set up. The collective included Jo Brew, Louise Carolin, Ilona, Rebecca Oliver and Angie Brew. The collective published 16 issues written by and for young women with an emphasis on topics like contraception, abortion, sexuality, lesbianism / queer issues, violence against women, women culture / music etc., skill sharing (e.g. how to form a band, a women's group etc.), racism and women's rights.

You can find out more about women's publishing in Changing Cultures and the Arts.

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1982 - Greater London Council's Women's Committee formed

5 September 1981

The Greater London Council (GLC) was the local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986...

5 September 1981

The Greater London Council (GLC) was the local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. In 1982 Valerie Wise became the chair of the newly formed GLC Women's Committee.

You can find out more about women's roles in political institutions in Politics and Legislation.

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1984 - Women Against Pit Closures formed

1984

During the 1984-85 Miners' Strike, wives and children of the miners set up support groups under the title Women Against Pit Closures...

1984

During the 1984-85 Miners' Strike, wives and children of the miners set up support groups under the title Women Against Pit Closures. Betty Cook was instrumental in the organisation of the Barnsley group.

You can find out more in Activism.

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1986 - Shakti Women's Aid is set up

1986

Shakti Women's Aid is set up by Edinbugh Black Women's Group...

1986

Shakti Women's Aid is set up by Edinbugh Black Women's Group. The organisation offers 'support, advocacy and information to all black / minority ethnic women, children and young people experiencing and/or fleeing domestic abuse from: partners / husbands; ex-partners; other family members. Rowena Arshad and Mukami McCrum were founder members of Shakti.

You can find out more about organisations supporting victims of domestic abuse in Activism.

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1987 - Jenni Murray becomes regular presenter of Woman's Hour on Radio 4

1987

Woman's Hour has been broadcast on Radio 4 since 1973. It is a daily programme that 'offers a female perspective on the world' through reports, interviews and debates on issues affecting women's lives...

1987

Woman's Hour has been broadcast on Radio 4 since 1973. It is a daily programme that 'offers a female perspective on the world' through reports, interviews and debates on issues affecting women's lives. Presenters have included Jean Metcalfe, Judith Chalmers and Sue MacGregor. Jenni Murray is currently a regular presenter of the programme.

You can find out more about women working and the challenge of balancing home and work responsibilities in Family and Children.

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1987 - Diane Abbott becomes first black woman to be elected to House of Commons

11 June 1987

Diane Abbott is a Labour politician and has served as MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington since 1987. She has been Shadow Minister for Public Health since 2010...

11 June 1987

Diane Abbott is a Labour politician and has served as MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington since 1987. She has been Shadow Minister for Public Health since 2010. When she was elected to Parliament in 1987 she became the first black woman to be elected to the House of Commons.

You can find out more about the political representation of women in Politics and Legislation, and about the relationship between race and feminism in Race, Place and Nation.

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1988 - Women in Black formed in Israel

1988

Women in Black is a worldwide network of women who protest against war and injustice. Weekly vigils are held in silence by regional groups across the world...

1988

Women in Black is a worldwide network of women who protest against war and injustice. Weekly vigils are held in silence by regional groups across the world. Shortly after its establishment in Israel, Women in Black was formed in the UK. Vigils are currently held in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay. Cynthia Cockburn is an active member of the London vigil group.

You can find out more in Race, Place and Nation.

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1988 - Julie Hayward is the first woman to win a case under the amended Equal Pay Act

May 1988

Julie Hayward was a canteen cook at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Liverpool. Her work was valued as less skilled than that of her male colleagues and she was therefore paid less...

May 1988

Julie Hayward was a canteen cook at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Liverpool. Her work was valued as less skilled than that of her male colleagues and she was therefore paid less. She took her case to court under the amended Equal Pay Act and eventually, won her battle.

You can find out more about the case, and Julie's story, in Equality and Work.

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