Anti-Jewish decrees

The persecution of the Jews began systematically almost as soon as Hitler came to power. The Nazis established many new anti-Jewish laws. These were introduced slowly at first, so that the civilian population would not realise the extent of the Nazi party's anti-Semitism. Below is a chart showing a small selection of the 2,000 Nazi anti-Jewish decrees passed between 1933-1945. It is uncertain whether Hitler planned to murder the Jews when he came to power. Originally it seems he intended to force them out of Germany but this eventually led to a plan to exterminate the Jews.

1933

Action
  • Public burning of books by Jews and anti-Nazis
  • Random attacks on Jews and Jewish property
  • Police and the courts no longer protect Jews
  • April boycotts of Jewish shops - for one day, Germans are told not to buy from shops and business owned by Jews
  • SA stand by shops to discourage people from going inside
  • 'Kosher'- ritual slaughter of animals banned
  • Department of Racial Hygiene ('ethnic cleansing') established


1934

Action

  • Jewish students excluded from exams in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and law
  • Jews excluded from military service

 


1935

Action

  • Nuremberg Laws deny Jews many basic civil rights
  • Law for 'The Protection of German Blood and German Honour' forbade mixed marriages


1935-36

Action

  • Jews no longer allowed to vote and lose German citizenship
  • Benefit payments to large Jewish families stopped
  • Jews banned from parks, restaurants and swimming pools
  • Jews forbidden to use the German greeting 'Heil Hitler'
  • Jews no longer allowed electrical/optical equipment, bicycles, typewriters or records
  • Passports for Jews to travel abroad restricted
  • Many Jewish students removed from German schools and universities


1938

Action

  • Special identity cards issued to Jews
  • Jews excluded from cinema, theatre, concerts, exhibitions, beaches and holiday resorts
  • Jews forced to add the names Sarah or Israel to their own
  • Kristallnacht (9 November) - a night of terrible violence in Germany. German and Austrian Jews are murdered, synagogues burnt and desecrated and shop windows destroyed. Thousands of Jews are arrested
  • Jewish children expelled from German schools
  • Jews' passports stamped with a red letter 'J'. Some have passports removed to prevent them leaving the country.


1939

Action

  • A central office for Jewish emigration set up
  • Jews evicted from their homes without reason and notice
  • Jews' radios confiscated
  • Jewish curfew established


1940

Action

  • Jews' telephones confiscated
  • Jews no longer receive ration cards for clothes


1941

Action

  • Jews over 6 forced to wear a Yellow Star of David with 'Jew' written on it
  • Jews Forbidden to use public telephones
  • Jews forbidden to keep dogs, cats and birds
  • Jews forbidden to leave the country


1942

Action

  • Jews hand over fur coats and woollen items
  • Jews not allowed to receive eggs or milk
  • Blind or deaf Jews no longer allowed to wear armbands identifying their condition in traffic
  • All schools closed to Jewish children

 

 


1943

Action

Continuous deportations