From Hitler's rise to power to the end of the Second World War
Hitler is elected Chancellor (leader of the Government) of Germany.
The German Parliament building, the Reichstag, is burnt down. Although the communists are blamed, it is believed that the Nazis themselves are responsible.
The Enabling Act is passed by Parliament, changing the Weimar Constitution and granting Hitler greater power.
Jewish businesses are boycotted.
Professional civil service laws are reformed, excluding Jews from working in civil service posts, teaching in schools and universities, and being scientists.
|25 April||A quota is established for the number of 'non-Aryan' students allowed at schools and universities.|
|10 May||Thousands of books by Jewish and other banned authors are burned in a public display of power.|
The Nazi party is declared the only legal party in Germany.
All German citizens that were naturalised after 1918 (the end of WWI) have their citizenship repealed. This affects 100,000 Eastern European Jews.
German citizens with congenital disabilities undergo forced sterilization.
|29 September||Only those able to prove they have no Jewish descendents are able to inherit farms.|
|31 May||'Non-Aryans' become ineligible for military service.|
The Nuremberg Laws are passed, preventing Jews from holding German citizenship, and forbidding marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Aryans.
The German army marches into Austria. This is known as the Anschluss, and it marks the inclusion of Austria into 'Greater Germany'. German anti-Jewish decrees are applied to Jews in Austria.
|23 March||Recognition of Jewish organisations is revoked.|
|6-15 July||33 governments attend a conference at Evian to discuss the situation of German Jewish refugees. Almost all countries refuse entry to refugees and very few offer any form of help.|
|25 July||Jewish Doctors' licences are cancelled.|
|27 July||Jewish Lawyers' licences are cancelled.|
Jewish men are made to take on the middle name 'Israel', and Jewish women 'Sarah'.
|5 October||Passports of German Jews are marked with a letter signifying that the holder is Jewish.|
|28 October||Polish Jews are expelled from Germany.|
|9-10 November||Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass). A night of appalling violence. Nearly 100 Jews are murdered and 20,000 German and Austrian Jews sent to camps. Synagogues are burnt down and Jewish shop windows are broken. The Jews are fined for the damage.|
|15 November||Jewish children are excluded from German schools.|
|2 December||The first of the Kindertransports arrive in Britain.|
|30 January||Hitler delivers a speech at the Reichstag, in which all of European Jewry is threatened with annihilation.|
|1 September||Germany invades Poland.|
|3 September||Britain, France, India, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany.|
|27 September||Germany orders ghettos to be established in Poland, forcing Jews to live in segregated, overcrowded conditions.|
|October||The Euthanasia Programme begins in Germany. This results in some 90,000 deaths of people with mental and physical disabilities by August 1941.|
|23 November||Jews in Poland are forced to wear the Star of David armband or Yellow Stars for identification purposes.|
|2 December||Nazis initiate the use of gas vans to eliminate mental patients.|
|30 April||160,000 Jews are forced to live in the Lodz ghetto.|
|15 November||500,000 Jews are forced to live in the Warsaw ghetto.|
|1 March||Auschwitz II concentration camp complex is extended upon Himmler's orders. The Auschwitz-Birkenau camp is constructed.|
Germany invades the Soviet Union.
Four Einzatzgruppen killing squads begin the mass slaughter of the Jews.
Approximately 2 million Jews are killed across Eastern Poland, Lithuania, the Baltic States and the Western areas of the Soviet Union.
|31 July||Heydrich receives instructions from Goering based on Hitler's orders for "The Final Solution of the Jewish Question".|
|1 September||The Euthanasia Programme is stopped.|
|8 December||Jews and Gypsies are killed with gas in mobile vans in Chelmno, the first death camp.|
|20 January||Plans for the Final Solution are co-ordinated at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin.|
|16 March||Operation Reinhart, the liquidation of Polish Jews, begins. First transports are sent to Belzec, Sobibor, Majdanek and Treblinka death camps.|
|26 March||The deportation of Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz begins. This is followed by the first deportations from France on 28 March.|
|22 July||The mass deportation of Warsaw Jews to Treblinka begins.|
|8 August||British and American governments receive information from World Jewish Congress about the Final Solution.|
|17 November||Allies denounce the murder of European Jews, declaring that those responsible will be brought to account.|
|17 December||The House of Commons holds a minute's silence for the murdered Jews of Europe.|
|18 January||Jews in Warsaw resist deportation.|
|14 March||Cracow ghetto is liquidated (pre-war Jewish population 60,000).|
|1 June||Lvov ghetto is liquidated (pre-war Jewish population 150,000).|
|28 June||Four crematoria are constructed at Auschwitz- Birkenau.|
|16 August||Bialystok ghetto is liquidated (pre-war Jewish population 50,000).|
|23 December||Vilna ghetto is liquidated (pre-war Jewish population 80,000).|
|15 May||The deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz begins.|
|6 August||70,000 Jews remaining in the Lodz ghetto are deported to Auschwitz.|
|7 October||Prisoners at Auschwitz revolt, blowing up one crematorium.|
|28 November||Final gassings take place in Auschwitz and gas chambers destroyed on Himmler's orders.|
|17 January||Prisoners in Auschwitz are sent on 'death marches' towards camps in Germany.|
|27 January||Auschwitz-Birkenau is liberated by the Soviets.|
|Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated by the British army.|
|30 April||Hitler commits suicide.|
|8 April||Nazi Germany surrenders. Victory in Europe (VE) Day marks the formal end of the war in Europe.|
|18 October||The Nuremberg Trials of military and political leaders of Nazi Germany begin.|