"all Jews must start wearing yellow stars"
"And on the 4th of July the German Army came in, and immediately the German laws started coming out. The worst one of all, in my opinion, is that the Jews have lost the right, that was the worst law which could have been given against us. That meant that if somebody hit you, you had no right to complain. If somebody came into your place and took away anything what he wants from you, you can't go to the police station and complain that he has robbed you, because you are a person without rights. And laws like that started coming out on a daily basis. First of all, all Jews must started wearing yellow stars from twelve years of age; no Jew must walk on the pavements; every Jew from twelve years old must go to work, so I went cleaning the rubble which was from the bombed places, to take out the bricks, to clean up the bricks of buildings, out the bricks. You had 400 grammes of bread, which was still a lot of bread, and of course as you lived yourself in a house, where you could make soup and so on."
Born 1929, Novogrodek (Vilna), Lithuania. Novogrodek ghetto. Liberated by Russians, Displaced Persons camp, Poland 1945. Married, three children.