Curie won two Nobel Prizes - one for Physics (shared with her husband)
and one for Chemistry. Her daughter, Irene Joliot-Curie, was also
awarded a Nobel Prize.
The International Committee of the Red Cross has won the Nobel Peace Prize three times (1917, 1944 & 1963).
The youngest Nobel Prize-winner was Lawrence Bragg, who was 25 years old when he received the Physics Prize with his father in 1915.
The oldest Nobel Prize-winner was Raymond Davis Jr who was nearly 88 years
old when he was awarded the Physics Prize in 2002.
Two winners have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize :
- Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature.
- Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. They received the Prize for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord.
Four winners have been forced to decline the Nobel Prize :
- Adolf Hitler forbade three German Nobel Prize-winners, Richard
Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, to receive the Nobel
Prize. They later received the diploma and the medal, but
not the Prize money.
- Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Prize-winner in Literature,
accepted at first but was later forced by the government
of the Soviet Union to decline.
The 2005 Nobel Prize-winners
The awards were presented on 10 December (the anniversary of
Alfred Nobel's death) in Stockholm.
The Nobel Prize in Physics
Roy J. Glauber (USA) for "his contribution to the quantum theory
of optical coherence", and John L. Hall (USA) and Theodor W. Hänsch
(Germany) for "their contributions to the development of laser-based
precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Yves Chauvin (France), Robert H. Grubbs (USA), and Richard R. Schrock
(USA) for "the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren (both Australia) for their
discovery that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes
gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
The Nobel Prize in Literature
Harold Pinter (UK) "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms".
The Nobel Peace Prize
Mohamed ElBaradei (Egypt) and International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) for "their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used
for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful
purposes is used in the safest possible way". Read more about International
Organisations and the Nobel Peace Prize.
The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
Robert J. Aumann (Israel and USA) and Thomas C. Schelling (USA)
for "having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation
through game-theory analysis".
Further information on the Nobel