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3760 BCE Creation of world according to Jewish teaching; beginning of Jewish calendar

c. 2000–1500 BCE Abraham makes covenant with God, who decrees his followers are chosen people - migration from Mesopotamia to Canaan

c. 1500–1200 BCE Flight from famine in Canaan – the Exodus from Egypt led by Moses – Ten Commandments received on Mount Sinai – Canaan conquered and settled

c. 950 BCE Solomon builds Jewish Temple in Jerusalem

1 Traditional date for birth of Jesus; beginning of Christian calendar

c. 33 Jesus of Nazareth is sentenced to death by Roman authorities

70 Romans destroy Jewish Temple in Jerusalem

312 Roman emperor Constantine converts to Christianity

400s Christianity now official religion of Roman empire

610 Muhammad begins receiving revelations from God through angel Gabriel

622 Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina (hijra); beginning of Islamic calendar

632 Muhammad dies; Sunni-Shia split soon follows

1054 Christian church split into Western (Catholic, centre Rome) and Eastern (Orthodox, centre Constantinople)

1100s–1200s Crusades: Christian forces sent to recover the Holy Land from Islam

1200s–1500s Christian oppression of Jewish communities in Europe

1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks

1492 Christian reconquest of Spain; expulsion of Jews and Muslims

1517 Martin Luther calls for reforms in Christian church; paves way for Protestantism

1534 Henry VIII splits with Rome to form Anglican church