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Shiva as Ardhanarisvara. This figure is carved into a column in the Pudu Mandapam, Madurai

Shiva as Ardhanarisvara. This figure is carved into a column in the Pudu Mandapam, Madurai

Artist: Anonymous

Medium: Pen and ink on paper

Date: 1801

Shelfmark: WD1063

Item number: f.13

Length: 37.1

Width: 24.8

Scale: Centimetres

Genre: Drawing

Pen and ink drawing of a figure of Shiva as Ardhanarishvara, at the Minakshi Sundareshvara Temple, Madurai, from an 'Album of 51 drawings (57 folios) of buildings, sculpture and paintings in the temple and choultry of Tirumala Nayyak at Madura. c.1801-05', by an anonymous artist working in the South India/Madurai style, c. 1801-1805. Each picture is inscribed with a title and a number in ink.

The Minakshi Sundareshvara Temple complex contains two main shrines; one dedicated to Shiva and one to his consort Minakshi, an ancient local divinity. Each shrine is set within its own walled complex containing several subsidiary shrines, mandapams (assembly halls) and artificial pools. The construction of this temple-town was made possible by the wealth and power of Tirumala Nayak (1623-1659). He was the most prolific builder of a long line of Nayaka kings, a dynasty who ruled a large portion of Tamil country in the 16th and 17th centuries. This drawing is a detail from the Pudu Mandapam, a long hall with columns that are elaborately carved with figures of Shiva in his various manifestations, yalis (fantastic lion-like beasts), as well as life-size statues of the ten Nayaka rulers together with their consorts. The word Ardhanarishvara derives from the Sanskrit 'ardha-nari' which means half woman. In this form Shiva is represented as half-male and half-female, the combined form of Shiva and Parvati which symbolises the union of the male and female energies.

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