Tomb beside the city wall, Peshawar (N.W.F.P.). 20 March 1879
Artist: Cramer-Roberts, Charles J. (1834-1895)
Water-colour painting of a tomb beside the city wall, Peshawar (North-West Frontier Province) by Charles J. Cramer-Roberts (1834-1895), 20 March 1879. Inscribed on the front in red ink is: 'Hafez Mustan Sayed Baba's tomb. Peshawur. 20/3/79. C.J.C.R.'
Peshawar, meaning ‘frontier town’, is situated at the head of the Khyber Pass, a major trade route and traditional gateway for invaders into India. The fortified stronghold of Bala Hisar, on the site of an ancient citadel, was the key to Peshawar and changed hands many times. The Mughal Emperor Babur occupied and strengthened the fort in the early sixteenth century, also laying out the carefully planned geometric Shalimar Gardens. After the decline of the Mughal Empire the city fell into the hands of the Durranis and was later taken by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh. In the nineteenth century the fort fell to the British who replaced the mud walls with ‘pucca’ brick.