Khandagiri Hill, Cuttack
Lithographer: Dibdin, Thomas Colman (1810-1893)
Medium: Lithograph, coloured
This image was the frontispiece of James Fergusson's 'Illustrations of the Rock Cut Temples of India'. Fergusson was a leading European authority on Indian architecture, publishing several scholarly texts, including his 1876 magnum opus 'History of Indian and Eastern architecture'.
He visited Orissa in 1836. The twin hills of Khandagiri and Udayagiri, six kilometres west of Bhubaneshwar, contain a series of Jain cave-temples cut out of the sandstone. Locally known as gumphas locally, most of them were excavated in the period of the Chedi kings (such as Kharavela, who reigned the first century BC). Khandagiri or 'Broken Hill' has 15 caves, of which the best-known is the Anantagumpha, or Serpent Cave.