Buddhist temple scenery near Kandy, Ceylon.
Photographer: Fiebig, Frederick
Medium: Photographic print
Photograph by Frederick Fiebig from an album of 70 handcoloured salt prints, showing a Buddhist temple near Kandy in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Little is known of the photographer apart from the fact that of German origin, he was an artist and lithographer in Calcutta, publishing a number of prints in the 1840s. He turned to photography in the late 1840s, using the calotype process and producing prints that were frequently hand-coloured. His photographs include hundreds of views of Calcutta, and views of Madras, Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Cape Town. The East India Company purchased a set of his hand-coloured views in 1856. The national identity and culture of Sri Lanka has been shaped by Theravada Buddhism, practised by its Sinhalese majority. Sri Lanka has the longest continuous Buddhist history in the world. Buddhism was established here from the 3rd century BC by a mission sent by the great Indian emperor Asoka, led by his son Mahinda. It was in Sri Lanka that the Theravada canon, previously orally transmitted, was written down in the 1st century BC, forming the sacred texts known as Tipitaka. Although the religion suffered periods of decline under pressures from foreign invasions, particularly by the Europeans from the 16th century onwards, it was revived in the 19th century both by monks and laypeople, with the added spur of nationalism.