Photograph of a section of an excavation at Brahmanabad in the Hyderabad District of Sind in Pakistan, taken by Henry Cousens in 1896-7. This is a view of the excavated trench with the remains of a wall at the bottom. Cousens wrote in the Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1897, "Deep excavation through the heaps of brick debris, which rise to 15 and 20 feet above the original street levels, revealed the fact that the foundations of all the upper buildings do not go any great depth into the mounds but are rather built upon them. It revealed more. Beneath the upper foundations, and with several feet of brick and earth debris between them, I found the foundations of older brick buildings. In the latter only the very old Hindu brick of great size was used, whilst in the upper walls a few of these were used with others of a far smaller size. Photograph No. 1509 [this image] shows one of these excavations. Above is seen the foundation of a wall, while seven feet below is seen a low cross-wall. The intervening space is filled with potsherds, bone, charcoal, ash, and small fragments of bricks, but there are no whole bricks. This absence of loose whole bricks in the intervening space, which is the debris of the older city, explains why we find both the older larger bricks and the smaller one of the Muhammadans in the same walls of the upper ruins. The Arab conquerors in rebuilding the city used again all the old material as far as it would go and supplemented it with new..."