Photograph of a class at the Anglo-Vernacular School at Karachi in Sind, Pakistan from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections: India Office Series (Volume 46), taken by Michie and Company in c.1873. This view from the back of the classroom looking towards pupils seated at the front was probably shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. In India vernacular education (in the local language) was considered a special obligation for the Government from 1854 when it was declared a concern by the Court of Directors. The vernacular course covered both primary and secondary education and was carried out in many different types of establishment depending on the resources of the area. In Bombay, for example, the complete course of vernacular education was delivered at primary school. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states, "There are three classes of secondary schools - the vernacular and English middle schools, and the high schools. The vernacular middle school course is a prolongation of the primary course, and completes the instruction of those who do not aspire to an English education. In most Provinces the course lasts for three years, and should be completed at about the age of thirteen."