East end of wall used as a water cistern, and also showing one of the square platforms, Madras
Photographer: Archaeological Survey of India
Medium: Photographic print
Photograph of the east end of a wall used as a water cistern at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken by a photographer of the Archaeological Survey of India on the 1st March 1902. Madras was established by the East India Company in 1639 as a trading post. In 1644 a small fort was erected and the city became the centre of the British presence in India. By 1690 the fort became a major city complex with 300,000 people. The European settlement remained inside the fort while the Black Town was outside the walls although in the 18th century many beautiful colonial houses with gardens started to be built outside the fort. Fort St George is situated north of the town on the seashore and was gradually transformed into a formidable structure. In 1694 the original Fort House was demolished to build a new one and in 1711 the inner Fort walls and corner bastions were pulled down to create Fort Square.