Photograph of a group of students from the Practising Government Normal School, at Madras in Tamil Nadu, taken in the 1860s, by a photographer from the Madras School of Industrial Arts. This view shows fifteen of the younger students from the school. Normal schools trained teachers and most were set up to train primary teachers and the lower masters of secondary schools. However, a few schools trained headmasters, principal masters of secondary schools and assistant professors for colleges. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states, "the best example of [such a school] is the Teachers' College at Madras...Attached to the college is a school in which the students receive practical instruction in the methods of teaching. The students are supervised and controlled by assistant professors styled superintendents...the student brings to the superintendent 'notes of lessons' which show what he is going to teach. The superintendent watches the teaching, notes the good and bad points, and explains to the student mistakes he has made. Periodical 'criticism lessons' are given, in which, after the lesson, the student-teacher is criticized first by the other normal students and afterwards by the principal. The lectures on method are illustrated by model lessons delivered by the professor, followed by a discussion."