Photograph of a group of six students from the University of Madras in Tamil Nadu from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections: India Office Series (Volume 46), taken by a photographer from the Madras School of Industrial Arts in the 1860s. The first universities in India were founded in 1857, in the three Presidency Capitals: Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, and were modelled on the University of London. Each university was governed by a Chancellor, in most case the Governor of the Province; apart from Calcutta whose Chancellor was the Governor-General, a Vice-Chancellor and a Senate. The Imperial Gazetteer of India, states "All the universities grant degrees in Arts and Law; all except Madras have separate Science schools; and all except Allahabad give degrees or diplomas in Medicine and Engineering. After matriculation an undergraduate wishing to take a degree in Arts or Science must, unless specially admitted as a private student, go through a four years' course at a college affiliated to the University. In the middle of the course an Intermediate or 'First Arts' examination is held...An annual convocation is held at which degrees are conferred: successful candidiates appear in their gowns and hoods, and the proceedings are conducted on the model of the ceremony in an English University."