Photograph of a Hindi class in progress at the Government Normal School at Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections: India Office Series (Volume 46), taken by an unknown photographer in 1871. This image shows the students seated around the teacher on the verandah of the school. The teacher appears to be demonstrating an unidentified piece of scientific equipment. Images like this one were often exhibited at European Universal Exhibitions. Normal schools trained teachers and The Imperial Gazetteer of India state, "In the case of primary teachers and the lower masters of secondary schools the courses of study and the examinations are organized by the Local Governments, and central and District schools are maintained for their instruction by the Government, and in some cases by local boards and missionary societies...Stipends are frequently given to the pupils, who then bind themselves to teach for a specified period. The courses include general and technical subjects and practical training."