Photograph of a rock-cut hall at Uparkot (the old citadel), Junagadh taken by James Burgess in 1874 or 1875. An important city since the Mauryan period, Junagadh became the capital of Gujarat under the Kshatrapa rulers between the 2nd and the 4th Centuries. The Uparkot was Junagadh's citadel, located slightly above the town as a whole. The Kshatrapa rulers sponsored the construction of a number of rock-cut caves that were excavated for the Buddhist and Jain monastic communities. This view shows one of the Buddhists caves from the 3rd-4th Century. The cave is beautifully carved, the pillars' capitals have sculpted nude females whilst the quality of workmanship of their bases are remarkable. The frieze on the wall depicts chaitya windows and female figures with ears attached to their headwear. The cave measures approximately fort feet by thirty feet. It remains in an excellent state of preservation due to the quantities of earth found inside.