K.H.W. [Karachi Harbour Works]. Bird's-eye view of [Manora] breakwater [under construction].
Medium: Photographic print
Photograph from the Crofton Collection: 'Public works including the Manora Breakwater and the River Son canal system' taken in the 1870s. The Manora breakwater was an important feature of the Karachi Harbour Improvement works, it provided protection to the Karachi harbour and deepened the entrance. They were planned in 1858 by James Walker, Civil Engineer and built between 1869 and 1873. Originally Karachi was a group of small villages made up of a cluster of fishermen’s huts. Due to it's location at the western end of the Indus delta the town has always been an important gateway for trade into central Asia. Karachi harbour developments were carried out through the mid 19th century due to an increase in the number of ships from international ports carrying goods to and from the sub continent. With the development of its harbour it grew into an important centre of trade and industry and was made the capital of Pakistan in 1947, although it was later shifted to Islamabad.