Photograph of a group of three Indian and one European teacher at Lord Harris's School, Royapett, Madras in Tamil Nadu from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections: India Office Series (Volume 46), taken in the 1860s by a photographer from the Madras School of Industrial Arts. The munshi, mentioned in the title, is most probably the figure seated on the left and denotes a teacher of languages. In India vernacular education (in the local language) was considered a special obligation for the Government from 1854 when it was declared a concern by the Court of Directors. The vernacular course covered both primary and secondary education and was carried out in many different types of establishment depending on the resources of the area. The Imperial Gazetteer of India states, "There are three classes of secondary schools - the vernacular and English middle schools, and the high schools...The English secondary school stage is divided into middle and high school sections, which really form portions of the same course...the English school education should ordinarily be completed by the time the pupil attained the age of sixteen...In English secondary schools the main course has hitherto led up to the matriculation or entrance examination of one or other of the Universities."