Photograph from the 'Album of portraits and views in Baroda' taken by an unknown phtographer in c.1880. This group portrait shows Her Highness the Maharani Jamnabai (the widowed consort of Khande Rao who adopted Sayaji Rao) sitting on a chair with the Gaekwar behind and to her left and Tarabai (possibly the Gaekwar's sister) standing at her right side. The state of Vadodara in Gujarat, western India was ruled by the Gaekwars from 1734 till Indian Independence. The rule of Sayaji Rao (r.1875-1939) was characterised by unprecedented progress and reform. He initiated a number of social reforms and paid great attention to the economic development of the state. He founded modern textile and tile factories and it is largely due to his policies that Vadodara is today one of the most important centres for the textile, chemical and oil industries in India. In order to develop education he introduced compulsory primary schooling, a library system for adult education and founded the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Vadodara.