Photograph of an unidentified Hindu temple and some rooftops at Mandu in Madhya Pradesh, taken by an unknown photographer around 1902. Situated on the spur of a plateau amidst the Vindhya range of central India, the fortified mediaeval citadel of Mandu in central India overlooked the Narmada valley. It was first part of the kingdom of the powerful Hindu Paramaras, supporters of culture and literature with their capital at Dhar. It was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate in 1305, and in 1401 became part of the province of the independent Sultans of Malwa. They transferred the capital from Dhar to Mandu, and made Mandu a great centre of the arts, architecture and learning, adorning it with many fine monuments. The Sultanate of Malwa collapsed in 1531, falling first to the Gujarat Sultanate and later being annexed by the Mughals. Jahangir praised Mandu and its architecture in his memoirs and Shah Jahan was much influenced by it. He even restored some of the old palaces when he was governor in the region. Mandu has lain abandoned for over 400 years and its ruins are now near a tiny village and an expanse of farmers' fields.