Photograph of a ruined tower, called But-qil'ah, Swat Valley taken by Alexander.E.Caddy in 1896. The Swat valley is home to a wide variety of archaeological remains as the area has been occupied for at least ten thousand years. The ancient kingdom of Udyana (Swat) and Gandhara (Peshawar) were ruled by the Kushans from the first century onwards and were responsible for much of the Buddhist architecture found in the valley today. The kingdoms combined, corresponded fairly closely with the northern part of what we now call North West Frontier Province. In 1895 Surgeon-Major L.A.Waddell went to the Swat valley to undertake archaeological research and obtain sculptures for the Indian Museum in Calcutta. Whilst there he met Major Deane the Chief Political Officer, and well-known archaeologist who, "generously said that he would make over to me all the numerous sculptures found in the Swat Valley, of which he had already got possession." Alexander.E Caddy was sent to collect the objects and made a photographic record of them; together with sites in the area, early the following year. We cannot be sure whether these ruins are situated in the upper or the lower swat valley.