Photograph of Buddhistic images taken by Alexander E. Caddy in 1896. The two figures in the photograph are cut directly into a rock face. The ancient kingdoms of Udyana (Swat) and Gandhara (Peshawar) corresponded fairly closely with the northern part of the North West Frontier Province. These kingdoms were formed by the Kushans, who were of Chinese origin and took over the area in the first century BC. Under the king Kanishka, who ruled from around 100 AD, Buddhism flourished in Gandhara; at one point there were 1400 monasteries in the lower Swat Valley alone. The Buddhist sculpture produced by the Kushans in the Swat Valley was referred to as Gandharan, and was influenced by Graeco-Roman elements. These influences can be seen in sculptural features such as the draped clothing the figures wear and the naturalistic modelling of their bodies. The two figures shown in this photograph are fairly typical of the Gandharan style.