Photograph of the ruins at Vijayanagara from the 'Photographs to Illustrate the Ancient Architecture of Southern Indian' collection, taken by Edmund David Lyon in c. 1868. Vijayanagara, the City of Victory, was the most powerful Hindu kingdom in Southern India from 1336 until the defeat by the Muslim armies in 1565. It was built on the bank of the Tungabhadra River and is surrounded by granite hills. The ruins of this vast royal city incorporate distinct zones and are divided into two main groups, the sacred centre and the royal centre. This photograph is a view looking across an overgrown courtyard towards an unidentified arcade of three arches. Lyon wrote, '...the building represented in this view...is said...to be a part of the Washerman's establishment; but it seems far more probable to have been a building occupied by one of the rich men of the city. It has all the appearance of a mosque, and if the orientation is correct, might almost certainly be assumed to have belonged to some Mohammedan establishment in the city.'