Photograph of the ruins at Vijayanagara from the 'Photographs to Illustrate the Ancient Architecture of Southern Indian' collection, taken by Edmund David Lyon in c. 1868. Vijayanagara, the City of Victory, was the most powerful Hindu kingdom in Southern India from 1336 until the defeat by the Muslim armies in 1565. It was built on the bank of the Tungabhadra River and is surrounded by granite hills. The ruins of this vast royal city incorporate distinct zones and are divided into two main groups, the sacred centre and the royal centre. The royal centre was the residential area of the royal household and included zones associated with the ceremonial, administrative and military functions of the rulers. This view shows the stone chariot of the Vitthala Temple. Lyon wrote, 'Between this Temple of Witoba and the other small temple...stands the Stone Car represented in this Photograph. The base is of one stone, well carved, and the interior is hollowed out. The top is of brick, the wheels are also of stone, and are made to turn on their axes. The height of the whole is about 20 feet...'