The River Tungabhadra from the River Temple, Vijayanagara 1396
Medium: Photographic print
Photograph of the Tungabhadra River from the Kodandarama Temple at Vijayanagara, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections taken by an unknown photographer around 1880. Vijayanagara, the City of Victory founded in 1336, was the most powerful Hindu kingdom in Southern India until the defeat by the Muslim armies in 1565. The empire reached its height during the reign of Krishnadevaraya (r.1509-29). The site is set in a natural basin through which flows the Tungabhadra river and it is surrounded by rocky outcrops of granite boulders. Along the south bank of the Tungabhadra there are many structures and shrines. This view is taken from the Kodandarama Temple, a popular pilgrimage shrine situated at the point where the river turns northwards and looks towards the tall pyramidal tower of the Virupaksha temple, seen in the foreground of this photograph.