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View looking up western wall of fort [at Ali Masjid], showing right corner bastion & position of the three conical peaks forming enemy's right defence, with entire line of sunga.

View looking up western wall of fort [at Ali Masjid], showing right corner bastion & position of the three conical peaks forming enemy's right defence, with entire line of sunga.

Photographer: Burke, John

Medium: Photographic print

Date: 1878

Shelfmark: Photo 487/(27)

Item number: 27

Length: 17.7

Width: 31.4

Scale: Centimetres

Genre: Photograph

Photograph taken by John Burke in 1878, with the view looking up the western wall of the Ali Masjid fort in the Khyber Pass, showing the right corner bastion & position of the three conical peaks forming the Afghan forces' right defence, with an line of sunga at left. The sunga were defensive stone breastworks. Burke accompanied the Peshawar Valley Field Force, one of three British Anglo-Indian army columns deployed in the Second Afghan War (1878-80), despite being rejected for the role of official photographer. He financed his trip by advance sales of his photographs 'illustrating the advance from Attock to Jellalabad'. Coming to India as apothecary with the Royal Engineers, Burke turned professional photographer, in partnership at first with William Baker. Travelling widely in India, they were the main rivals to the better-known Bourne and Shepherd. Burke's two-year Afghan expedition produced an important visual document of the region where strategies of the Great Game were played out.

The Anglo-Russian rivalry (called the Great Game) precipitated the Second Afghan War. Afghanistan was of strategic importance to the British in the defence of their Indian Empire, and the prevention of the spreading influence of Russia. They favoured a Forward Policy of extending India's frontiers to the Hindu Kush and gaining control over Afghanistan. An opportunity presented itself when the Amir Sher Ali turned away a British mission while a Russian mission was visiting his court at Kabul. The British had demanded a permanent mission at Kabul which Sher Ali, trying to keep a balance between the Russians and British, would not permit.

British suspicions of the Amir's perceived susceptibility to the Russians led them to invade Afghanistan.

Of the three columns moving simultaneously into three approaches into Afghanistan, the Peshawar Valley Field Force, led by Lt. General Samuel Browne, was the largest. Its aim was to take the fort of Ali Masjid and thus the Khyber Pass. General Browne's tactic in attacking the vital fortress described as the 'key to the Pass' was to split his force into a further three columns. One advanced up the Khyber Valley, and the other two went up the parallel Lashora valley to occupy the heights above and behind the fortress of Ali Masjid and launch their attacks.

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