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A Treaty of Alphonso of Castile and Henry III, in a Historical Compilation

A Treaty of Alphonso of Castile and Henry III, in a Historical Compilation

Medium: Ink and pigments on vellum

Date: 1390

Shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI

Item number: f.56v

Length: 35.5

Width: 23

Scale: Centimetres

Genre: Illuminated manuscript

King Richard II (1367-1400), son of Edward the Black Prince, was crowned at age ten, with the regency of a council headed by John of Gaunt. His achievements when an adolescent in negotiating an end to the Peasants' Rebellion, 1381, were not lived up to when he ruled the country as king. He alienated Parliament, was deposed in 1399 and died (probably murdered) a prisoner at Pontefract Castle. This collection of historical documents, a chronicle of English kings and rules for activities at the royal court was made during Richard's reign. It is possible that the king had it made for his ally, Thomas de Mowbray. Its miniatures resemble closely others surviving in manuscripts decorated for the monks of Westminster Abbey as well as a few linked to Richard II, who apparently was an outstanding royal patron of painters. The Wilton Diptych (in the National Gallery, London), probably his personal devotional shrine, represents him before English royal saints adoring the Virgin and Child. This is a copy of a treaty between King Alphonso of Castile and Henry III of England. Part of the peacemaking was the marriage of Alphonso's daughter, Eleanor, to Henry's son, Edward, in 1254. Edward was crowned Edward I in 1274. This is one of several copies of documents placed at the beginning of the book, possibly as affirmations of English royal power during the severe upheavals and crises of Richard II's reign.

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