While the Anglo-Saxons understood natural science within a framework of Christian doctrine, it represented a secular facet of their knowledge. This manuscript contains a calendar, a map of the world, astronomical materials, and a 'Marvels of the East' (on the strange inhabitants of other parts of the world). Written in Old English and Latin, it is one of the most lavishly illustrated secular books of the early middle ages. Nonetheless, its origins are not easily determined. Its features point to Canterbury, Winchester and Gloucester, with current opinion supporting Christ Church, Canterbury. How it was used is unknown: it is so unique nothing compares with it. In the 12th century it belonged to the library of Battle Abbey. One of the most entertaining if not interesting 'scientific' treatises of the early middle ages, the 'Marvels of the East' draws upon ancient Greek and Roman traditions of writing on the exotic inhabitants of foreign lands. In the middle ages, such treatises were popular and nearly always illustrated, although not always so lavishly as in this manuscript, which shows two creatures on each page. Here are shown the semi-human but multi-lingual donestre, who entice men with their engaging conversation but then devour them all but the head, over which they mourn. Next is one of the enormous panotii, who flee from men by flapping their huge ears and flying away.