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Piscis (The Fish), in a Late Roman Version of Cicero's 'Aratea'

Piscis (The Fish), in a Late Roman Version of Cicero's 'Aratea'

Medium: Ink and pigments on vellum

Date: 830

Shelfmark: Harley MS 647

Item number: f.11r

Length: 32

Width: 27.5

Scale: Centimetres

Genre: Illuminated manuscript

Made in France, probably in Rheims, about 820-840, this manuscript has a copy of a famous poem on the constellations and planets. The result of several layers of translation and being added to, the poem is a late Roman version of a Latin translation done in the 1st century BCE by Cicero. Cicero had translated a Greek poem written in the 3rd century BCE by Aratus. Hence, it was known as the 'Aratea'. The illustrations which accompany it in medieval manuscripts follow what was probably an ancient tradition. This manuscript is known to have been at St Augustine's monastery, in Canterbury, by the end of the 10th century. By that time, Anglo-Saxon interest in natural science, which can be seen three centuries earlier in Bede's writings, had gained widespread support by Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastics in their program to elevate the level of education for clergy and monks. Natural science was understood with the framework of Christian doctrine, although it represented a secular facet of their knowledge. Showing one of the two Pisces of the zodiacal sign, the illustration in the 'Aratea' manuscript depicts the constellation's stars with red discs and notes the number (12) in it ("S[unt] stellae XII"), as well as the large Canopus star next to it. The fish's body is formed of the words of the 'scholia', a later addition to the poem's illustrations which is always written within the figures. The 'Aratea' verses are beneath the picture, the usual position for them in medieval manuscripts of the poem.

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