A breviary is a prayerbook giving the prayers, hymns, and readings for the divine office, the cycle of devotions which monks recited daily. They can vary in size, this one being on the small side and so considered a 'portable breviary.' Its origins are uncertain, although heraldry of the Despenser, Warren, and other families were added to it soon after its manufacture. In 1486 Thomas Harwode, chaplain, gave it to the parish church of Penwortham, Lancashire. The Penwortham Breviary preserves one of the oldest, most complete examples of the divine office according to Sarum Use, or as recited in much of medieval post-Norman England. The psalter (Book of Psalms) is included in the breviary because the monks sang from it daily. The first letter of Psalm 109 bears a picture of Christ and the Father seated side-by-side, a Christian interpretation of the first verses: "The Lord says to my Lord, 'Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet'."