All through the middle ages, the psalter was used as a private prayerbook, a hymnal for services for laity and monks, and a text for theological study. In this manuscript the latin words have translations above (gloss) and prayers, proverbs and notes in Old English in its margins, indicating that it was used for study and private devotion. A prayer added in the early 11th century mentions two saints especially venerated at Winchester, suggesting that the psalter originated there, although other later additions and the letter 'r' in the top outer corner of the page of the beginning of Psalm 1 show that it was at Christ Church, Canterbury, in the 11th century. After the Psalms the Canticles (hymns of praise, mostly taken from the Bible) and Creeds (statements of Christian belief). The Athanasian Creed was long thought to have been composed by St. Athanasius, a 4th-century bishop of Alexandria, but this was disproved in the 17th century.