View of Newcastle upon Tyne in Northern England. Newcastle is situated on the Northern bank of the River Tyne and it was during the Roman occupation that a settlement was first established here. Forts were built here as part of the defences of Hadrian’s Wall. In the 9th and 10th centuries the area began to be known as Monkchester after a community of monks who had established a community here. In the 11th century Robert Curthose (son of William the Conqueror) built a large castle and it locally the area became known as ‘New Castle’. By the 18th and 19th centuries Newcastle upon Tyne had become an important commercial and industrial centre known for its ship building and coal mining industries.