Draughtsman: Budgen, Charles
Medium: Pen and ink on paper
This plan of part of Monmouthshire shows the valley of the River Usk running from top to bottom of the sheet, with the Abergavenny canal (used to carry a small trade up to Breconshire) following the course of the river. To the left of the plan, the Welsh valleys stretch down the coastal plain from the Brecon Beacons to the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport. Rich in iron ore, coal and limestone, the valleys developed from rural to industrial communities during the course of the 18th century. Highlighted in red along the mines and ironworks of the valleys are tramroads, the horse-worked railways predating the age of steam.