Cartographer: Von Haschenperg, Stephen
Medium: Ink and tempera on parchment
This pen and ink drawing shows the citadel of Carlisle , viewed from the south and dates from between 1540 and 1542. This plan is signed ‘Stephanum de Hashenperg’. Haschenperg, who is first recorded in royal service as ‘devisor’ of Sandgate, was master of the king’s works in Carlisle from the summer of 1541. This drawing records his original ideas for the citadel, the existing medieval walls had to be demolished and re built so as to connect with the new bulwarks. The citadel marks a decision to re-edify Carlisle in view of its position as the northern extremity of the line of defence against Scotland, and the 1538-40 threat from the combined forces of France and Spain after Francis I of France, and Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain signed a peace treaty in 1538. Occupying the southern entrance to the city the citadel was, in view of the obsolete defences of the city, intended to be an independent strength. It was for this reason that the northern face of the citadel was also fortified, even though this was within the city walls. Despite his accomplishments, Haschenburgh was debarred from further office at Carlisle, accused of having behaved ‘lewedlye and spent a great treasure all to no purpose’.