Wilfred Owen

Wilfred Owen by unknown photographer
Wilfred Owen by unknown photographer © Fotosearch/Getty Images

Biography

Wilfred Owen (1893–1918) is widely regarded as one of Britain’s greatest war poets. Writing from the perspective of his intense personal experience of the front line, his poems, including ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’ and ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’, bring to life the physical and mental trauma of combat. Owen’s aim was to tell the truth about what he called ‘the pity of War’.

Born into a middle-class family in 1893 near Oswestry, Shropshire, Owen was the eldest of three. His father, Tom Owen, was a railway clerk and his mother, Susan, was from a fervently religious family.

In 1915, Owen enlisted in the army and in December 1916 was sent to France, joining the 2nd Manchester Regiment on the Somme. Within two weeks of his arrival he was commanding a platoon on the front line. In the midst of heavy gunfire, he waded for miles through trenches two feet deep in water with the constant threat of gas attacks. The brutal reality of war had a profound effect on him, as he recounted in letters to his mother. His poems ‘The Sentry’ and ‘Exposure’ record specific ordeals of this time.

In April, after being blown into the air by a shell, Owen spent several days sheltering in a hole near the corpse of a fellow officer, and was shortly after diagnosed with shell shock. In June 1917 he was sent to Craiglockhart War Hospital, near Edinburgh, where he spent four months under the care of the renowned doctor, Captain Arthur Brock. Here Owen wrote many poems and became editor of the Hospital magazine, Hydra. He also met fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon who gave him crucial support and encouragement in a literary friendship which transformed Owen’s life.

Through Sassoon, Owen met some key literary figures of the time including Robert Graves, Robert Ross and H G Wells. Many of the members of this literary circle were gay, including Ross and Sassoon. It is now recognised that Owen himself was also gay, and his writing incorporates many homoerotic elements.

During the spring of 1918, while back with the Manchester Regiment in Yorkshire, Owen wrote or revised many of his most famous poems, including ‘Strange Meeting’, ‘Exposure’ and ‘Futility’. By now he had consolidated his use of ‘pararhymes’, a technique which contributed to the effect of solemnity and discordancy: eyes/bless; moan/mourn (from ‘Strange Meeting’).

In September 1918, Owen returned to the front during the final stages of the war. He fought a fierce battle and was awarded the Military Cross for his bravery. He was killed, at the age of 25, while leading his men across the Sambre and Oise Canal near Ors, on 4 November – just one week before the Armistice was declared.

Virtually unknown as a poet in his lifetime, most of Owen’s poems were published after his death. Aware that his work could do nothing to help his own generation, he succeeded in warning the next, his poetic legacy having a major impact on attitudes to war.

Further information about the life of Wilfred Owen can be found here via the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Related articles

Broken mirrors: the First World War and modernist literature

Article by:
Randall Stevenson
Themes:
Literature 1900–1950, Power and conflict, Capturing and creating the modern

Randall Stevenson describes how the violence and loss of the First World War affected modernist writers’ attitudes towards nature and time, as well as shaping their experiments with language, literary form and the representation of consciousness.

'Dulce Et Decorum Est', a close reading

Article by:
Santanu Das
Themes:
Power and conflict, Literature 1900–1950

Santanu Das examines the crafting of one of Owen’s most poignant poems, ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’, and shows how Owen’s war poems evoke the extreme sense-experience of the battlefield.

‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’ and ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’: tracing the influence of John Keats

Article by:
Sandra M. Gilbert
Themes:
Power and conflict, Literature 1900–1950

Sandra M Gilbert explores the literary heritage of two of the most famous First World War poems, Wilfred Owen's 'Anthem for Doomed Youth' and 'Dulce et Decorum est'.

Related collection items

Related teachers' notes

School students at the British Library

Wilfred Owen's ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’: ‘The poetry is in the pity’

Activities built around a close reading of ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’.

PDF Download Available

Related works

'Anthem for Doomed Youth'

Created by: Wilfred Owen

‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’ is a poem by the British poet Wilfred Owen, drafted at Craiglockhart War ...

'Dulce et Decorum Est'

Created by: Wilfred Owen

‘Dulce et Decorum Est’ is a poem by the British poet Wilfred Owen, drafted at Craiglockhart War Hospital ...